Intellectual Disabilities Research

de Winter, C. F., Hermans, H., Evenhuis, H. M., & Echteld, M. A. (2015). Associations of symptoms of anxiety and depression with diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in older people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities Research, 59, 176-185.

Depression, anxiety, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease risks have been shown to be related in the general older population.  Furthermore, they are bidirectionally related.  Though these health problems are also common among older people with ID, these relationships had not been previously studied in this population.  This study looked at the association between symptoms of depression and anxiety and cardiovascular risk factors in older people with ID.

This study encompassed 990 participants aged 50 years and older with ID, receiving formal ID care.  Screening instruments were used to identify symptoms of anxiety and depression.  Physical examinations and blood draws were used to establish components of the metabolic syndrome, peripheral arterial disease, and c-reactive protein.

Key findings / “takeaways”

The only significant association found in the study was between anxiety and diabetes in older people with ID.  This association may be bidirectional.  No other associations of depression and anxiety symptoms with cardiovascular risk factors could be proven to be significant.

It was interesting to note that etiology may also affect the relationships studied.  People with Down syndrome are often more obese and have higher body fat percentages but have fewer other cardiovascular disease risk factors than people with other causes of ID.  However, older people with Down syndrome are more prone to early dementia, the symptoms of which can resemble those of depression.  In this study, people with Down syndrome were almost three times more likely to have symptoms of depression.

What do the findings mean for students with an ID?

Cardiovascular disease risk factors increase with age.  “Students” implies being of school-age, a demographic which this study did not address.  However, the following background information was shared in the article:

  • Adolescents with ID and obesity were more likely to experience depression than those with a healthy weight, and
  • The prevalence of depression and low self-esteem seemed to be higher among overweight adolescents.

A different study found no association between depression and obesity in adults with ID and this study similarly did not find an association between depression and cardiovascular disease risk factors in seniors with ID.  However, the findings referenced in the background information suggest the need for future study, as the relationships between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease risk factors may be applicable to younger people with ID and perhaps even experienced differently than in adulthood.

What are potential implications for practice / educational programming?

In practical application, the association between anxiety and diabetes suggests that when one disorder is present in older people with ID, the other should also be screened for so preventative measures can be implemented.  Explanations of the bidirectional relationship between the conditions include:

  • People with diabetes may encounter a lot of stress and medical visits in their lives (ex: finger pricking, monitoring blood sugars, regular blood draws, hospitalization due to complications) that lead to anxiety;
  • Disturbed glucose homeostasis, elevated inflammatory cytokines, and vascular damage may cause symptoms of anxiety; and
  • Anxiety may contribute to impaired glucose tolerance.

Key definitions

Bidirectional:  functioning in two directions

Cardiovascular risk factors:  obesity, body fat percentage, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, smoking, c-reactive protein, and peripheral arterial disease

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency

Order your paper today and save 15% with the discount code HAPPY

X
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via + 1 323 412 5597

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.