Two 100-150-word answers to discussion questionsThe purpose of discussion forum is to encourage you to debate and consider the questions of the week in depth – to provide the same opportunities that you might have in a class to teach and learn from each other. For each module youll receive fifteen to twenty questions and you should write 100 to 150-word answers on TWO questions. Ill be looking for clarity specific information and evidence that you are reading and learning from fellow students. Please also be aware that you will not receive full credit for your post if you primarily summarize what others have already written. It makes sense to try to limit your post to 150-words to give your fellow students the possibility of also responding to the question. Your post should add some substantive point to the discussion. For example you could make reference to an event individual quote or movement from the textbook; you could interpret the evidence in a new and different way from the existing posts; you could ask a question about something that you found puzzling or confusing; you could link evidence in other posts to the larger questions for the week or you could ask an insightful question that spurs students to think more deeply about the material. Here are some tips if you feel that what you have written has already been discussed. I hope that you also see these discussion questions as prompts that will allow you to write answers to the question but also to comment on what you found most interesting in the chapter. *Please put the number of words at the bottom of your post. Please do not include your quote in your word count. Please remember that these contributions must be in your own words. Even for these informal assignments as well as quizzes a student who uses anothers words without proper attribution is committing plagiarism. Finally you might consider “liking” posts that are well-written or lead you to think about the material in new ways. Here are the questions for this week: 1. Why does the chapter open with the image of a Calvinist Temple of Paradise? How does this space differ from the Gothic Cathedral in chapter 9? 2. In what ways do the opening vignettes of Erasmus or Katharina von Bora reveal key themes of the chapter? 3. As opposed to the term “reformation” why might it be preferable to treat the period as a re-formation re-making or re-founding of Christian institutions and beliefs? 4. At the time of the issuing of his Ninety-five Theses Martin Luther still seemed to have accepted most of Catholic theology. In what ways does our document for this week (pg. 416) support that view? 5. How and why did Luther come to develop a much more radical rethinking of Christian theology and institutions? Why cant he accept the Churchs authority? 6. What challenges faced the church in the 1400s and 1500s? 7. Explain the basic beliefs of Luther’s new theology of salvation and his ideas about how the true Christian church should be structured. In other words what aspects of existing Catholic practice did Luther challenge? 8. In the view of Catholics of the early 1500s how did indulgences work? Why did it make sense to pay money to the church to help loved ones or oneself enter heaven? 9. Why did the Roman Catholic church find Luther’s ideas so disturbing and dangerous? 10. Why did Luther’s ideas and those of other new religious leaders such as Zwingli and Calvin create problems regarding the relationship between church and state? What was Luther’s solution to those problems? How did his views differ from those of other religious reformers? 11. Why did religious war break out in the Holy Roman Empire in the 1540s and in the rest of Europe in the second half of the sixteenth century? To what extent were these wars tied to political struggles as well as tensions over religious doctrine? How did the “many Europes” and political divisions in Europe prevent Luthers ideas from being silenced? 12. What was the “Radical Reformation”? Why did new and more radical religious leaders emerge? What was the reaction of followers of Luther and Calvin to these new movements? 13. Why did Franz von Sickingen and the Knights in the Knights revolt believe that Luthers ideas supported their interests? 14. What ultimately were the most effective responses of the Catholic Church to both the challenge of Protestantism and demands for spiritual reform from within the church? How did the Catholic Church carry out reform? 15. How did the Church fight back against the Protestants? What role did the Jesuit order play in this fight? 16. In what ways might baroque art assist the Catholic Church in maintaining the support of the faithful? What role did mystics play in the upheavals of this period? 17. Why did wars over religion dominate the second half of the sixteenth century and what did Europeans learn from these wars? What did the religious turmoil of the sixteenth century cost Europe? What did Europeans gain? 18. Have a look at map 13.2. What areas remained free of Protestantism and why would that be the case? 19. Why did Spain attack England in 1588 and why was Spain unsuccessful? 20. What were the costs of the religious turmoil of this period and to what extent did Europeans gain from this experience?

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