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BIO 101 Lab 01: Scientific Method
To submit, read the lab, print or edit pages 6-10 to include your data, graph, and answers to questions. Save your document and upload the completed document as a Word or PDF file in Canvas.
If you have a disability that makes it difficult to complete this lab, please contact your instructor. Please provide your instructor a copy of the Memorandum of Accommodation (MOA) from NVCC Disability Support Services.
●Use the Scientific Method to design and complete a simple experiment.
Science is the process used to solve problems and to gain a better understanding of the natural world. Scientists are constantly looking for better and clearer answers to a wide range of questions. The basic method used to find the answers is called the Scientific Method. This method is based on a set of coreassumptions:
●Science is an ongoing process that results in an evolution of our understanding of the patterns and fundamental rules of nature.
The Scientific Method is a stepwise process used to develop answers.
4.Experiment: A controlled event that generates data.
5.Conclusion: After analysis of the experimental data, there will be 2 possibilities for a conclusion:
A)the hypothesis is consistent with the data and the conclusion is “Do not reject the hypothesis”
B)the hypothesis is not consistent with the data and the conclusion is “Reject the hypothesis.”
The question formulated from the observation must be logical and answerable. Hypotheses developed from questions must be based on relevant information, testable, and falsifiable. Experiments should be designed to minimize variability, meaning only small details/variables (preferably only one) should be varied during the experiment in order to test the hypothesis. These controlled experiments are best when only one variable is changed. Lastly experiments must be repeatable to help ensure there is no bias in the results.
While an experiment is conducted, conditions are measured and monitored closely. Some conditions of the experiment are held constant and remain the same during the experiment. For example, a researcher testing the effect of nutrient conditions on plant growth will give each plant the same amount of water,sunlight, air conditions, temperature, etc. The independent variable is the experimental condition that theresearcher changes during the experiment in order to test the hypothesis. In the plant growth example, the concentration of a particular mineral could be the independent variable. Ideally, only one variable is changedwhen testing a hypothesis. The dependent variable is measured during the experiment, and the measurements are carefully recorded. For example, the researcher measuring the effect of a mineral on plant growth will grow identical plants with and without a particular mineral. The researcher will give each plant (experiment) the same amount of water, sunlight, amount of soil, and conduct the experimentover the same time period. The researcher can then measure the dependent variables such as: plant height, plant color, flower production, fruit production, etc. This data can be recorded in tables or charted on graphs. When graphing data from an experiment the independent variable is on the horizontal (X-axis) and the dependent variable is on the vertical (Y-axis).
Cornell, B. 2016. Soil Content. [ONLINE] Available at: https://ib.bioninja.com.au/options/option-c-ecology-and-conser/c6-nitrogen-and-phosphorus/soil-content.html. [Accessed 24 April 2020].
Experiments are often submitted for peer review and are repeated by other scientists. The results of an experiment often stimulate additional hypotheses and experiments. Over time, a large number of experiments that investigate a natural phenomenon and generate consistent data may lead to a consensusamong scientists about the interpretation of this data. A theory may be formed from this scientific consensus. In some branches of science, a theory develops into a law, which is generally expressed by a mathematical formula used to explain and predict actions. In physics and chemistry there are several examples of laws.
In this experiment, you will use the internet to research resting heart rate and recovery after exercise, use your lecture textbook and the internet to learn more about the scientific method, and collect data on your own heart rate to complete the data set.
When running in place keep a safe distance from others and objects around you.
Before Data Collection
1.Use the internet to research how exercise affects heart rate and heart rate recovery after exercise.
2.Before you collect your own data, complete questions 1-4 on page 6 (based on your internet research).
1.Heart rate data from other students are provided for you. The data are organized into the following groups:
•A control group (those who did NOT exercise)
•An experimental group (those who exercised).
The groups were randomly selected (mix of male and female), but your heart rate data are missing.
2.Each student was given an identifying number in order to keep track of the data. The Students inthe Control Group are be labeled C1, C2, C3, C4, and so on. Students in the Experimental Group are labeled E1, E2, E3, E4, and so on. You will be part of the experimental group, E16, unless you have a disability that prevents participation (then you will be part of the control group, C16). Conduct the experiment as described below and add your data into the data table in the appropriate box.
Answer questions 5 -10 on page 10.
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