Chapter04.pptx

Chapter 4:

Influence of Cultural and Health Belief Systems on Health Care Practices

Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved

1

Cultural Belief Systems #1
Cultural meanings and cultural belief systems develop from the shared social group experiences and are expressed symbolically.

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2

Cultural Belief Systems #2
Worldview
The set of metaphoric explanations used by a group of people to explain life’s events and to offer solutions to life’s mysteries

Permeates every lifeway within a group culture

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3

Cultural Belief Systems #3
Worldview (paradigm) includes the assumptions, premises, and linkages that bind together a prevailing interpretation of reality; typically slow to change.

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4

Question #1
Is the following statement true or false?

All clients refer to illness and disease in the same context.

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Answer to Question #1
False
Rationale: Not all clients relate to health and illness in the same context. A client’s worldview influences his or her cultural belief system.
These are often the reasons why nurses may encounter challenges when communicating with those who have a different worldview than theirs.

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6

Health Belief Systems #1
Health and illness worldviews are influenced by a person’s values, beliefs, and practices.
This concept is his or her health belief system.

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7

Health Belief Systems #2
The three major health belief systems are:
Magico-religious
Scientific/biomedical
Holistic

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8

Health Belief Systems #3
In the magico-religious paradigm:
The world is an arena in which supernatural forces dominate.
The fate of the world and those in it depends on the actions of God, or the Gods, or other supernatural forces of good or evil.
The cause of health or illness is mystical.
Examples: Voodoo, Christian Scientists

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9

Health Belief Systems #4
In the scientific paradigm (biomedical model):
Life is controlled by a series of physical and biochemical processes, which can be studied and manipulated by humans.
Determinism (cause and effect for natural phenomena).
Mechanism (control life processes through mechanical, genetic, and engineered processes).
Reductionism (all life reduced to smaller parts).
Objective materialism (what is real can be observed/measured).
Example: most Western cultures

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10

Health Belief Systems #5
In the holistic paradigm:
The forces of nature itself must be kept in natural balance or harmony.
Everything in the universe has a place and a role to perform.
Disturbing natural laws create imbalance, chaos, and disease.
Examples: yin/yang, hot/cold

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11

Question #2
Is the following statement true or false?

Asians and Native American Indians should be assessed for holistic health beliefs.

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12

Answer to Question #2
True

Rationale: The holistic paradigm has existed for centuries in many parts of the world, particularly in Native American Indian cultures and Asian cultures.

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13

Health and Illness Behaviors #1
Health behavior (prevention/early detection)

Illness behavior (illness/remedy)

Sick role behavior (illness/coping)

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14

Health and Illness Behaviors #2
Influencing factors:
One’s beliefs
Personal factors
Cues to action

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15

Types of Healing Systems #1
The term healing system refers to the sciences, arts, and techniques of restoring and preserving health that are used by any cultural group.

Example: utilizing health care practitioners along with healers, religious figures, etc.

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16

Types of Healing Systems #2
Self-care
Professional care systems
Folk healing system
Complementary, integrative, and alternative health systems (CIH)

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17

Types of Healing Systems #3
Complementary Health Approaches/CIH:
Traditional alternative medicine beliefs
Natural products and senses
Mind and body practices
Manipulative and body-based methods
Energy therapies

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18

Question #3
What is the focus of allopathic or biomedicine?
Replacing conventional medicine
Adding to conventional medicine
Killing bacteria and suppressing symptoms
Healing with naturally occurring substances

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19

Answer to Question #3
C. Killing bacteria and suppressing symptoms

Rationale: Allopathic medicine is the practice most physicians and nurses are educated in. Life is controlled by a series of physical and biochemical processes that can be studied and manipulated by humans through allopathic medicine or professional care systems.

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