DB 8 AND DB 9

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Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.  This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT, 5e

JOHN W. SANTROCK
SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN LATE ADULTHOOD
16

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Chapter Outline
Theories of socioemotional development
Personality and society
Families and social relationships
Ethnicity, gender, and culture
Successful aging

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Theories of Socioemotional Development
Erikson’s theory
Integrity vs. Despair: Reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one’s life has not been well spent
Life review – Looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating and interpreting/reinterpreting them, developing mature wisdom and understanding
Reminiscence Therapy
Discussing past activities and experiences with another individual or group

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Theories of Socioemotional Development
Activity theory
The more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives
Socioemotional selectivity theory
Older adults become more selective about their social network
Spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships
Challenges stereotypes of emotional despair due to social isolation

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Theories of Socioemotional Development
Socioemotional selectivity theory – Goals and Motivation:
Knowledge-related goals
Emotion-related goals
Different trajectories throughout lifespan
Older adults’ feelings mellow, fewer highs and lows in life

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Theories of Socioemotional Development
Selective optimization with compensation theory:
Successful aging is linked to 3 main factors:
Selection – Reduced capacity and loss of functioning, which require a reduction in performance in most life domains
Optimization – Possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and the use of new technologies
Compensation – When life tasks require higher level of performance than older adults’ capacity
Life goals and personal life investments vary across life course
Attainment of meaningful goals as a measure of life satisfaction

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Figure 16.1 – Degree of Personal Life Investment at Different Points in Life

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Personality and Society
Big Five Personality factors change into late adulthood
Older adults were more conscientious and agreeable than middle-aged and younger adults
Increases in following aspects of conscientiousness
Impulse control, reliability, and conventionality
Certain personality traits are associated with mortality of older adults

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Personality and Society
Ageism: Prejudice against others because of their age
Most frequent forms include disrespect for older adults, assumptions about ailments or frailty
Policy issues in an aging society
Status of the economy and income
Health care
Technology

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Families and Social Relationships
Lifestyles of older adults are changing
Role of marital dissolution and remarriage
Married older adults
In 2012, 58% of U.S. adults over 65 were married; 27% were widowed
Marital satisfaction is greater in older adults than middle-aged adults
Married individuals more likely to provide care for a sick partner with a limiting health condition

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Families and Social Relationships
Divorced and remarried older adults
In 2012, 1% of women and 12% of men 65 years and older in the U.S. were divorced or separated
Divorce is far less common among older adults, likely reflecting cohort effects
Social, financial, and physical consequences of divorce
Remarriage is increasing due to:
Rising divorce rates
Increased longevity
Better health

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Families and Social Relationships
Cohabiting older adults
Increasing numbers of older adults cohabitate
In 2010, 3% of older adults were cohabiting
Numbers expected to increase as Baby Boomers age into late adulthood

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Families and Social Relationships
Attachment and aging adults
Older adults have fewer attachment relationships than younger adults
With increasing age, attachment anxiety decreases
In late adulthood, attachment security is associated with greater psychological and physical well-being
Insecure attachment is linked to more negative caregiver burden in caring for patients with Alzheimer disease

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Families and Social Relationships
Older adults parents and their children
About 80% of older adults have living children, many of whom are middle-aged
Increased diversity in parent-child relationships – divorce, cohabitation, and non-marital childbearing more common today than in past
Adult daughters are more likely to be involved in the lives of aging parents
Adult children often coordinate and monitor services for aging disabled parents

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Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.  This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Families and Social Relationships
Friendships
In late adulthood, new friendships are less likely to be forged; close friends chosen over new friends
Activities with friends increase positive affect and life satisfaction in older adults
Social support and integration
Social convoy model – Throughout life, individuals are embedded in a personal network to whom they give and from whom they receive social support
Social support helps individuals of all ages cope with life’s challenges
Linked with older adults’ physical and mental health

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Families and Social Relationships
Altriusm and volunteerism
Older adults’ strategies more likely to be aimed at contributing to the public good
24.1% of adults ages 65+ engaged in volunteering
Older adults perceive better well-being when they provide social support to others rather than when they receive it
Volunteering is associated with positive outcomes:
Constructive activities
Productive roles
Social integration
Enhanced meaningfulness

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Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.  This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture
Ethnicity
Ethnic minority older adults overrepresented in poverty statistics, especially African Americans and Latinos
Face problems related to both ageism and racism
Despite stress and discrimination, many ethnic minority individuals have developed coping mechanisms that allow them to survive
Extensions of family networks
Role of churches

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Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture
Gender
Women experience burdens of both ageism and sexism
Poverty rate for older adult females is double that of older adult males
Special concerns for female ethnic minority older adults – racism, sexism, and ageism

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Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture
Factors likely to predict high status for older adults in a culture:
Have valuable knowledge
Control key family/community resources
Engage in useful/valued functions as long as possible
Age-related role changes that give greater responsibility, authority, and advisory capacity
Extended family, in which older person is integrated
Respect for older adults

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Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.  This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Successful Aging
Many abilities can be maintained and/or improved in older adults due to:
Proper diet
Active lifestyle
Mental stimulation and flexibility
Positive coping skills
Good social relationships and support
Absence of disease

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