discussion #9 business

ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
OF PSYCHOLOGISTS

AND
CODE OF CONDUCT

Printed in the United States of America

Adopted August 21, 2002
Effective June 1, 2003

(With the 2010 Amendments
to Introduction and Applicability

and Standards 1.02 and 1.03,
Effective June 1, 2010)

With the 2016 Amendment
to Standard 3.04

Adopted August 3, 2016
Effective January 1, 2017

INTRODUCTION AND APPLICABILITY

PREAMBLE

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Principle A: Beneficence

and Nonmaleficence
Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility
Principle C: Integrity
Principle D: Justice
Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights

and Dignity

ETHICAL STANDARDS
1. Resolving Ethical Issues
1.01 Misuse of Psychologists’ Work
1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law,

Regulations, or Other Governing
Legal Authority

1.03 Conflicts Between Ethics and
Organizational Demands

1.04 Informal Resolution of Ethical
Violations

1.05 Reporting Ethical Violations
1.06 Cooperating With Ethics Committees
1.07 Improper Complaints
1.08 Unfair Discrimination Against

Complainants and Respondents

2. Competence
2.01 Boundaries of Competence
2.02 Providing Services in Emergencies
2.03 Maintaining Competence
2.04 Bases for Scientific and Professional

Judgments
2.05 Delegation of Work to Others
2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts

3. Human Relations
3.01 Unfair Discrimination
3.02 Sexual Harassment
3.03 Other Harassment
3.04 Avoiding Harm
3.05 Multiple Relationships
3.06 Conflict of Interest
3.07 Third-Party Requests for Services
3.08 Exploitative Relationships
3.09 Cooperation With Other

Professionals
3.10 Informed Consent
3.11 Psychological Services Delivered to

or Through Organizations
3.12 Interruption of Psychological Services

4. Privacy and Confidentiality
4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality

4.02 Discussing the Limits of
Confidentiality

4.03 Recording
4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy
4.05 Disclosures
4.06 Consultations
4.07 Use of Confidential Information

for Didactic or Other Purposes

5. Advertising and Other Public
Statements

5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive
Statements

5.02 Statements by Others
5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and

Non-Degree-Granting Educational
Programs

5.04 Media Presentations
5.05 Testimonials
5.06 In-Person Solicitation

6. Record Keeping and Fees
6.01 Documentation of Professional

and Scientific Work and
Maintenance of Records

6.02 Maintenance, Dissemination,
and Disposal of Confidential Records
of Professional and Scientific Work

6.03 Withholding Records for
Nonpayment

6.04 Fees and Financial Arrangements
6.05 Barter With Clients/Patients
6.06 Accuracy in Reports to Payors and

Funding Sources
6.07 Referrals and Fees

7. Education and Training
7.01 Design of Education and Training

Programs
7.02 Descriptions of Education and

Training Programs
7.03 Accuracy in Teaching
7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal

Information
7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group

Therapy
7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee

Performance
7.07 Sexual Relationships With

Students and Supervisees

8. Research and Publication
8.01 Institutional Approval
8.02 Informed Consent to Research
8.03 Informed Consent for Recording

Voices and Images in Research

8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and
Subordinate Research Participants

8.05 Dispensing With Informed Consent
for Research

8.06 Offering Inducements for Research
Participation

8.07 Deception in Research
8.08 Debriefing
8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals

in Research
8.10 Reporting Research Results
8.11 Plagiarism
8.12 Publication Credit
8.13 Duplicate Publication of Data
8.14 Sharing Research Data for Verification
8.15 Reviewers

9. Assessment
9.01 Bases for Assessments
9.02 Use of Assessments
9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments
9.04 Release of Test Data
9.05 Test Construction
9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results
9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons
9.08 Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test

Results
9.09 Test Scoring and Interpretation

Services
9.10 Explaining Assessment Results
9.11 Maintaining Test Security

10. Therapy
10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy
10.02 Therapy Involving Couples or

Families
10.03 Group Therapy
10.04 Providing Therapy to Those Served

by Others
10.05 Sexual Intimacies With Current

Therapy Clients/Patients
10.06 Sexual Intimacies With Relatives

or Significant Others of Current
Therapy Clients/Patients

10.07 Therapy With Former Sexual Partners
10.08 Sexual Intimacies With Former

Therapy Clients/Patients
10.09 Interruption of Therapy
10.10 Terminating Therapy

AMENDMENTS TO THE 2002
“ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Of
PSYCHOLOGISTS AND CODE Of
CONDUCT” IN 2010 AND 2016

Effective June 1, 2003 (as amended 2010, 2016). Effective January 1, 2017 1
Copyright © 2017 by the American Psychological Association. 0003-066X

ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Of PSYCHOLOGISTS
AND CODE Of CONDUCT

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION AND APPLICABILITY
The American Psychological Association’s (APA’s)

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
(hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an
Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles (A-E),
and specific Ethical Standards. The Introduction discusses
the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and
scope of application of the Ethics Code. The Preamble and
General Principles are aspirational goals to guide psycholo-
gists toward the highest ideals of psychology. Although the
Preamble and General Principles are not themselves en-
forceable rules, they should be considered by psychologists
in arriving at an ethical course of action. The Ethical Stan-
dards set forth enforceable rules for conduct as psycholo-
gists. Most of the Ethical Standards are written broadly, in
order to apply to psychologists in varied roles, although the
application of an Ethical Standard may vary depending on
the context. The Ethical Standards are not exhaustive. The
fact that a given conduct is not specifically addressed by an
Ethical Standard does not mean that it is necessarily either
ethical or unethical.

This Ethics Code applies only to psychologists’ ac-
tivities that are part of their scientific, educational, or profes-
sional roles as psychologists. Areas covered include but are
not limited to the clinical, counseling, and school practice
of psychology; research; teaching; supervision of trainees;
public service; policy development; social intervention;
development of assessment instruments; conducting as-
sessments; educational counseling; organizational consult-
ing; forensic activities; program design and evaluation; and
administration. This Ethics Code applies to these activities
across a variety of contexts, such as in person, postal, tele-
phone, Internet, and other electronic transmissions. These
activities shall be distinguished from the purely private con-
duct of psychologists, which is not within the purview of the
Ethics Code.

Membership in the APA commits members and stu-
dent affiliates to comply with the standards of the APA Ethics
Code and to the rules and procedures used to enforce them.
Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an Ethical Stan-
dard is not itself a defense to a charge of unethical conduct.

The procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving
complaints of unethical conduct are described in the current
Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee. APA
may impose sanctions on its members for violations of the
standards of the Ethics Code, including termination of APA
membership, and may notify other bodies and individuals of
its actions. Actions that violate the standards of the Ethics
Code may also lead to the imposition of sanctions on psy-
chologists or students whether or not they are APA mem-
bers by bodies other than APA, including state psychological
associations, other professional groups, psychology boards,
other state or federal agencies, and payors for health services.

In addition, APA may take action against a member after his
or her conviction of a felony, expulsion or suspension from
an affiliated state psychological association, or suspension or
loss of licensure. When the sanction to be imposed by APA
is less than expulsion, the 2001 Rules and Procedures do not
guarantee an opportunity for an in-person hearing, but gen-
erally provide that complaints will be resolved only on the
basis of a submitted record.

The Ethics Code is intended to provide guidance for
psychologists and standards of professional conduct that can
be applied by the APA and by other bodies that choose to
adopt them. The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of
civil liability. Whether a psychologist has violated the Eth-
ics Code standards does not by itself determine whether
the psychologist is legally liable in a court action, whether a
contract is enforceable, or whether other legal consequences
occur.

2 Introduction and Applicability Effective January 1, 2017

The American Psychological Association’s Council of Representatives ad-
opted this version of the APA Ethics Code during its meeting on August 21,
2002. The Code became effective on June 1, 2003. The Council of Represen-
tatives amended this version of the Ethics Code on February 20, 2010, effec-
tive June 1, 2010, and on August 3, 2016, effective January 1, 2017. (see p. 16
of this pamphlet). Inquiries concerning the substance or interpretation of
the APA Ethics Code should be addressed to the Office of Ethics, American
Psychological Association, 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.
This Ethics Code and information regarding the Code can be found on the
APA website, http://www.apa.org/ethics. The standards in this Ethics Code
will be used to adjudicate complaints brought concerning alleged conduct
occurring on or after the effective date. Complaints will be adjudicated on
the basis of the version of the Ethics Code that was in effect at the time the
conduct occurred.

The APA has previously published its Ethics Code, or amendments there-
to, as follows:

American Psychological Association. (1953). Ethical standards of psycholo-
gists. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1959). Ethical standards of psycholo-
gists. American Psychologist, 14, 279-282.

American Psychological Association. (1963). Ethical standards of psycholo-
gists. American Psychologist, 18, 56-60.

American Psychological Association. (1968). Ethical standards of psycholo-
gists. American Psychologist, 23, 357-361.

American Psychological Association. (1977, March). Ethical standards of
psychologists. APA Monitor, 22-23.

American Psychological Association. (1979). Ethical standards of psycholo-
gists. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1981). Ethical principles of psycholo-
gists. American Psychologist, 36, 633-638.

American Psychological Association. (1990). Ethical principles of psycholo-
gists (Amended June 2, 1989). American Psychologist, 45, 390-395.

American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psycholo-
gists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psycholo-
gists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.

American Psychological Association. (2010). 2010 amendments to the 2002
“Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.” American Psycholo-
gist, 65, 493.

American Psychological Association. (2016). Revision of ethical standard
3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002,
as amended 2010). American Psychologist, 71, 900.
Request copies of the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code

of Conduct from the APA Order Department, 750 First St. NE, Washington,
DC 20002-4242, or phone (202) 336-5510.

The modifiers used in some of the standards of this
Ethics Code (e.g., reasonably, appropriate, potentially) are in-
cluded in the standards when they would (1) allow profes-
sional judgment on the part of psychologists, (2) eliminate
injustice or inequality that would occur without the modi-
fier, (3) ensure applicability across the broad range of ac-
tivities conducted by psychologists, or (4) guard against a
set of rigid rules that might be quickly outdated. As used in
this Ethics Code, the term reasonable means the prevailing
professional judgment of psychologists engaged in similar
activities in similar circumstances, given the knowledge the
psychologist had or should have had at the time.

In the process of making decisions regarding their
professional behavior, psychologists must consider this
Ethics Code in addition to applicable laws and psychol-
ogy board regulations. In applying the Ethics Code to their
professional work, psychologists may consider other ma-
terials and guidelines that have been adopted or endorsed
by scientific and professional psychological organizations
and the dictates of their own conscience, as well as consult
with others within the field. If this Ethics Code establishes
a higher standard of conduct than is required by law, psy-
chologists must meet the higher ethical standard. If psy-
chologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regu-
lations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists
make known their commitment to this Ethics Code and
take steps to resolve the conflict in a responsible manner in
keeping with basic principles of human rights.

PREAMBLE
Psychologists are committed to increasing scientific

and professional knowledge of behavior and people’s un-
derstanding of themselves and others and to the use of such
knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, organi-
zations, and society. Psychologists respect and protect civil
and human rights and the central importance of freedom of
inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and publica-
tion. They strive to help the public in developing informed
judgments and choices concerning human behavior. In do-
ing so, they perform many roles, such as researcher, edu-
cator, diagnostician, therapist, supervisor, consultant, ad-
ministrator, social interventionist, and expert witness. This
Ethics Code provides a common set of principles and stan-
dards upon which psychologists build their professional
and scientific work.

This Ethics Code is intended to provide specific
standards to cover most situations encountered by psy-
chologists. It has as its goals the welfare and protection of
the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work
and the education of members, students, and the public re-
garding ethical standards of the discipline.

The development of a dynamic set of ethical stan-
dards for psychologists’ work-related conduct requires a

personal commitment and lifelong effort to act ethically;
to encourage ethical behavior by students, supervisees,
employees, and colleagues; and to consult with others con-
cerning ethical problems.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
This section consists of General Principles. General

Principles, as opposed to Ethical Standards, are aspiration-
al in nature. Their intent is to guide and inspire psycholo-
gists toward the very highest ethical ideals of the profes-
sion. General Principles, in contrast to Ethical Standards,
do not represent obligations and should not form the basis
for imposing sanctions. Relying upon General Principles
for either of these reasons distorts both their meaning and
purpose.

Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom

they work and take care to do no harm. In their profession-
al actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and
rights of those with whom they interact professionally and
other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of
research. When conflicts occur among psychologists’ obli-
gations or concerns, they attempt to resolve these conflicts
in a responsible fashion that avoids or minimizes harm. Be-
cause psychologists’ scientific and professional judgments
and actions may affect the lives of others, they are alert to
and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational,
or political factors that might lead to misuse of their influ-
ence. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect
of their own physical and mental health on their ability to
help those with whom they work.

Principle B: fidelity and Responsibility
Psychologists establish relationships of trust with

those with whom they work. They are aware of their pro-
fessional and scientific responsibilities to society and to the
specific communities in which they work. Psychologists
uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their pro-
fessional roles and obligations, accept appropriate respon-
sibility for their behavior, and seek to manage conflicts of
interest that could lead to exploitation or harm. Psycholo-
gists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other profes-
sionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the
best interests of those with whom they work. They are con-
cerned about the ethical compliance of their colleagues’
scientific and professional conduct. Psychologists strive to
contribute a portion of their professional time for little or
no compensation or personal advantage.

Principle C: Integrity
Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty,

and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of

Effective January 1, 2017 Preamble–Principle C 3

4 Principle D–Standard 1.06 Effective January 1, 2017

psychology. In these activities psychologists do not steal,
cheat, or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional mis-
representation of fact. Psychologists strive to keep their
promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. In
situations in which deception may be ethically justifiable to
maximize benefits and minimize harm, psychologists have
a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible
consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any re-
sulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the
use of such techniques.

Principle D: Justice
Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice

entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the con-
tributions of psychology and to equal quality in the pro-
cesses, procedures, and services being conducted by psy-
chologists. Psychologists exercise reasonable judgment
and take precautions to ensure that their potential biases,
the boundaries of their competence, and the limitations of
their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices.

Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights
and Dignity

Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all
people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confiden-
tiality, and self-determination. Psychologists are aware that
special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights
and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabili-
ties impair autonomous decision making. Psychologists
are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differ-
ences, including those based on age, gender, gender iden-
tity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual
orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status,
and consider these factors when working with members of
such groups. Psychologists try to eliminate the effect on
their work of biases based on those factors, and they do not
knowingly participate in or condone activities of others
based upon such prejudices.

ETHICAL STANDARDS
1. Resolving Ethical Issues

1.01 Misuse of Psychologists’ Work
If psychologists learn of misuse or misrepresenta-

tion of their work, they take reasonable steps to correct or
minimize the misuse or misrepresentation.

1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations,
or Other Governing Legal Authority
If psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict

with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority,
psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known
their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable

steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General
Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. Under
no circumstances may this standard be used to justify or
defend violating human rights.

1.03 Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational
Demands
If the demands of an organization with which psy-

chologists are affiliated or for whom they are working are
in conflict with this Ethics Code, psychologists clarify the
nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the
Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the con-
flict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Stan-
dards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances may this
standard be used to justify or defend violating human rights.

1.04 Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations
When psychologists believe that there may have

been an ethical violation by another psychologist, they at-
tempt to resolve the issue by bringing it to the attention of
that individual, if an informal resolution appears appropri-
ate and the intervention does not violate any confidential-
ity rights that may be involved. (See also Standards 1.02,
Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other
Governing Legal Authority, and 1.03, Conflicts Between
Ethics and Organizational Demands.)

1.05 Reporting Ethical Violations
If an apparent ethical violation has substantially

harmed or is likely to substantially harm a person or organi-
zation and is not appropriate for informal resolution under
Standard 1.04, Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations,
or is not resolved properly in that fashion, psychologists
take further action appropriate to the situation. Such ac-
tion might include referral to state or national committees
on professional ethics, to state licensing boards, or to the
appropriate institutional authorities. This standard does
not apply when an intervention would violate confidential-
ity rights or when psychologists have been retained to re-
view the work of another psychologist whose professional
conduct is in question. (See also Standard 1.02, Conflicts
Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing
Legal Authority.)

1.06 Cooperating with Ethics Committees
Psychologists cooperate in ethics investigations,

proceedings, and resulting requirements of the APA or any
affiliated state psychological association to which they be-
long. In doing so, they address any confidentiality issues.
Failure to cooperate is itself an ethics violation. However,
making a request for deferment of adjudication of an eth-
ics complaint pending the outcome of litigation does not
alone constitute noncooperation.

Effective January 1, 2017 Standard 1.07–Standard 2.06 5

1.07 Improper Complaints
Psychologists do not file or encourage the filing of

ethics complaints that are made with reckless disregard for or
willful ignorance of facts that would disprove the allegation.

1.08 Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants
and Respondents
Psychologists do not deny persons employment,

advancement, admissions to academic or other programs,
tenure, or promotion, based solely upon their having made
or their being the subject of an ethics complaint. This does
not preclude taking action based upon the outcome of such
proceedings or considering other appropriate information.

2. Competence

2.01 Boundaries of Competence
(a) Psychologists provide services, teach, and con-

duct research with populations and in areas only within the
boundaries of their competence, based on their education,
training, supervised experience, consultation, study, or
professional experience.

(b) Where scientific or professional knowledge in
the discipline of psychology establishes that an understand-
ing of factors associated with age, gender, gender identity,
race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual ori-
entation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is
essential for effective implementation of their services or
research, psychologists have or obtain the training, experi-
ence, consultation, or supervision necessary to ensure the
competence of their services, or they make appropriate re-
ferrals, except as provided in Standard 2.02, Providing Ser-
vices in Emergencies.

(c) Psychologists planning to provide services,
teach, or conduct research involving populations, areas,
techniques, or technologies new to them undertake rel-
evant education, training, supervised experience, consulta-
tion, or study.

(d) When psychologists are asked to provide servic-
es to individuals for whom appropriate mental health ser-
vices are not available and for which psychologists have not
obtained the competence necessary, psychologists with
closely related prior training or experience may provide
such services in order to ensure that services are not denied
if they make a reasonable effort to obtain the competence
required by using relevant research, training, consultation,
or study.

(e) In those emerging areas in which generally rec-
ognized standards for preparatory training do not yet exist,
psychologists nevertheless take reasonable steps to ensure
the competence of their work and to protect clients/pa-
tients, students, supervisees, research participants, organi-
zational clients, and others from harm.

(f ) When assuming forensic roles, psychologists are

or become reasonably familiar with the judicial or adminis-
trative rules governing their roles.

2.02 Providing Services in Emergencies
In emergencies, when psychologists provide ser-

vices to individuals for whom other mental health services
are not available and for which psychologists have not ob-
tained the necessary training, psychologists may provide
such services in order to ensure that services are not denied.
The services are discontinued as soon as the emergency has
ended or appropriate services are available.

2.03 Maintaining Competence
Psychologists undertake ongoing efforts to develop

and maintain their competence.

2.04 Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments
Psychologists’ work is based upon established scien-

tific and professional knowledge of the discipline. (See also
Standards 2.01e, Boundaries of Competence, and 10.01b,
Informed Consent to Therapy.)

2.05 Delegation of Work to Others
Psychologists who delegate work to employees,

supervisees, or research or teaching assistants or who use
the services of others, such as interpreters, take reasonable
steps to (1) avoid delegating such work to persons who
have a multiple relationship with those being served that
would likely lead to exploitation or loss of objectivity; (2)
authorize only those responsibilities that such persons can
be expected to perform competently on the basis of their
education, training, or experience, either independently or
with the level of supervision being provided; and (3) see
that such persons perform these services competently. (See
also Standards 2.02, Providing Services in Emergencies;
3.05, Multiple Relationships; 4.01, Maintaining Confiden-
tiality; 9.01, Bases for Assessments; 9.02, Use of Assess-
ments; 9.03, Informed Consent in Assessments; and 9.07,
Assessment by Unqualified Persons.)

2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts
(a) Psychologists refrain from initiating an activity

when they know or should know that there is a substantial
likelihood that their personal problems will prevent them
from performing their work-related activities in a compe-
tent manner.

(b) When psychologists become aware of personal
problems that may interfere with their performing work-
related duties adequately, they take appropriate measures,
such as obtaining professional consultation or assistance,
and determine whether they should limit, suspend, or ter-
minate their work-related duties. (See also Standard 10.10,
Terminating Therapy.)

6 Standard 3.01–Standard 3.08 Effective January 1, 2017

3. Human Relations
3.01 Unfair Discrimination

In their work-related activities, psychologists do
not engage in unfair discrimination based on age, gender,
gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, re-
ligion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status,
or any basis proscribed by law.

3.02 Sexual Harassment
Psychologists do not engage in sexual harassment.

Sexual harassment is sexual solicitation, physical advances,
or verbal or nonverbal conduct that is sexual in nature, that
occurs in connection with the psychologist’s activities or
roles as a psychologist, and that either (1) is unwelcome,
is offensive, or creates a hostile workplace or educational
environment, and the psychologist knows or is told this or
(2) is sufficiently severe or intense to be abusive to a rea-
sonable person in the context. Sexual harassment can con-
sist of a single intense or severe act or of multiple persistent
or pervasive acts. (See also Standard 1.08, Unfair Discrimi-
nation Against Complainants and Respondents.)

3.03 Other Harassment
Psychologists do not knowingly engage in behavior

that is harassing or demeaning to persons with whom they
interact in their work based on factors such as those per-
sons’ age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture,
national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, lan-
guage, or socioeconomic status.

3.04 Avoiding Harm
(a) Psychologists take reasonable steps to avoid

harming their clients/patients, students, supervisees, re-
search participants, organizational clients, and others with
whom they work, and to minimize harm where it is foresee-
able and unavoidable.

(b) …

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