Discussion-Response 2

The Agonist-To-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents
          Psychopharmacologic drug effect at the sites of neurotransmission is based on a spectrum of agonist to an antagonist.  An agonist is a molecule that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter by binding and stimulating the receptor site to produce a response. Whereas, an antagonist opposes the outcome of the agonist, by blocking the action of neurotransmission. Antagonists are known as the mediators of therapeutic actions in psychiatric disorders and are the cause of undesirable side effects (Stahl, 2021). The spectrum of agonist to antagonist consists of a full agonist, partial agonist, silent antagonist, inverse agonist, and irreversible agonist. A full agonist allows the receptor to fully open the ion channel, which allows maximum signal transduction to occur; a partial agonist partially enhances signal transduction; the silent antagonist will return the receptor to a resting state; the inverse agonists goes beyond antagonism and even blocks constitutive activity; and the irreversible agonist binds and activates the receptor but the binding is permanent and the receptor is essentially destroyed (AegisShield, 2015). Where a particular psychopharmacological drug is on the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum, determines its interaction with the targeted receptor.
Compare and Contrast G Couple Proteins and Ion Gated Channels.
G couple proteins represent the most abundant family membrane proteins in the human genome, which are activated by a spectrum of structurally diverse ligands. They have seven different protein segments which span the membrane seven times and transmit signals for binding sites for neurotransmitters (Stahl, 2021).  This will allow for therapeutic drug actions to occur. Once drugs attach to these receptor sites, a full or partial blocking function of neurotransmitters occurs. The molecular changes can ultimately be affected by the drug actions, and cause changes in which phosphoproteins are activated or inactivated, or determine which enzymes, receptors, or ion channels are modified by neurotransmission (Stahl, 2021).
Ion gated channels are electrically controlled.  Unlike ions, g-Couple proteins can diffuse through the membrane and ultimately change a cell’s behavior, and ions cannot diffuse due to their charge. Ion gated channels control access in and out of neurons.  Dependent on the class of ion channels, they may be opened by neurotransmitters or voltage. Both g couple proteins and ion gated channels are types of protein receptors which are embedded in cell membranes that bind to a molecule. Medications that change the flow of ions can cause a clinical effect, unlike drugs that target g protein-linked receptor sites, which takes a more extended period to produce effect (Stahl, 2021).
How the Role of Epigenetics Contribute to Pharmacologic Action
          Epigenetics is the study of how DNA interacts with the multitude of smaller molecules found within cells, which can activate and deactivate genes. Epigenetic changes are part of normal development, they can be influenced by factors including diet, chemical exposure, and medication. The resulting epigenetic changes can eventually lead to disease, for example, they turn off a gene that makes a tumor-suppressing protein, but there are classes of drugs that regulate epigenetic mechanisms to counteract disease states in humans. However, epigenetic changes are not necessarily permanent and a balanced lifestyle that includes a healthy diet, exercise, and avoiding exposure to contaminants may in the long run create a healthy epigenome.
epigenetics could explain mechanisms of human development and aging,
as well as the origins of cancer, heart disease, mental illness, addiction, and many other conditions (Guerrero-Bosagna, 2016). 
The Impact of Information on How the PMHNP Prescribes Medications to Patients
To properly prescribe drugs and monitor their effect on patient, the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) must understand concepts and mechanism of drug actions and with every client, intended use, action of drug, and side effects should be thoroughly explained. Most psychiatric medications have direct effects on the central nervous system, so it is essential to be aware of the mechanism of action of these prescribed drugs for efficacy and safety. For instance, Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Patients on clozapine require close monitoring including weekly or bi-weekly lab to check for white blood cell count due to high risk for agranulocytosis, other adverse effects of clozapine include risk for myocarditis, tachycardia, constipation, orthostatic hypotension, seizure, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, anticholinergic effect, and tardive dyskinesia (MedicineNet, 2016).
AegisShield. (2015). Pharmacology Corner: Agonists and Antagonists. Retrieved from https://www.aegislabs.com/agonists
Guerrero-Bosagna, C. (2016). What is Epigenetics? Retrieved from https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-the-choices-you-make-can-affect-your-genes-carlos-guerrero-bosagna
MedicineNet. (2016). Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.medicinenet.com/schizophrenia_pictures_slideshow/article.htm
Stahl Online. (2021). Stahl`s Essential Psychopharmacology. Retrieved from


If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages

Order your paper today and save 15% with the discount code HAPPY

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via + 1 323 412 5597

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.