Emerging Adulthood Assignment

Guided Response: Review your classmates’ posts and select two of your classmates to respond to. Offer your peers at least one additional strategy for each behavior to help minimize the challenging behaviors shared. In addition, explain why you included the additional method.


After reviewing the Jose and Olivia Interactivity, I chose to do my discussion on Olivia.  Olivia exhibits the following behavioral challenges:

· Disruptions that upset other children or lead them to act out.

· Olivia is very Impulsive and does whatever she wants or blurts out whatever she wants regardless if it is hurtful or not.

· Very negative towards other children and tells them their work is terrible or that they are ugly.

I believe the first step in creating a strategy to correct challenging behavior would be to set up a date and time for Olivia’s mother to come in and discuss these problems with her. We will discuss how she plans to correct these issues in the home and use those strategies as a basis on how we will handle them in the classroom. All of these challenging behaviors can also be called a form of bullying. We need to correct this type of behavior right away because “The longer a child uses inappropriate behavior to meet his needs, the harder it is to change” (Kaiser, 2017). A few strategies for correcting this type of behavior is to first sit down and talk to Olivia about this, we could also make a sticker chart where she gets a sticker for everyday she is not mean to someone (Bonus sticker is she does something nice), and lastly, make sure that you are being a proper role model and not exhibiting bullying behavior as well.

Children learn by watching and if you have a bully type personality, they may just have one too. With bullying it is best to nip it in the bud as early as possible. We also need to be careful with how we word things about role models. Olivia’s mother may be quickly offended, and we would not want to offend her. Making it clear that we do not want to offend anyone and that Olivia’s behavior and well being is our main priority here. We also need to remember that Olivia’s mother may not experience this type of behavior at home. “Even if the parent can’t give you help or make it to the classroom, you will still make your relationship stronger by showing that you value their input” (Eicholz, 2017). A few other tips on speaking to a student’s parents are choosing your battles and admitting when you are wrong. Because in this instance the parent is the boss and in reality we may have what we believe to be a good way to correct Olivia’s behavior but ultimately, Olivia’s mother can just say no.


Eichholz, T. (2017) New Teachers: How to Talk to Parents. Retrieved from


Kaiser, B., & Sklar Rasminsky, J. (2017). Challenging behavior in young children:

Understanding, preventing, and responding effectively (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu


Jose 2 years old

The first challenging behavior that Jose exhibits is low language. The interactivity states that he only knows 5 words and refuse to try new words. Jose first language is Spanish, and English is his second language. Language barrier can be the reason Jose refuses to try new words. A way to help Jose learn new words would be to provide a print rich environment. I would provide language in both English and Spanish. I would also say things in both languages. For example, if I juice in English, I will also say it Spanish.

The second challenging behavior is physical aggression is often pushing other children during play time. According to the text Kaiser & Sklar Rasminsky (2017), “as children’s language and cognitive skills grow, they learn to regulate their feelings and attention, use words instead of actions, control their impulses, understand another person’s point of view, and utilize assertive and prosocial strategies to communicate their needs and achieve their goals” (sec.1.1). As stated in the activity Jose has low language skills. This could be the reason he shows aggression with his peers. According to the text Kaiser & Sklar Rasminsky (2017), “when using language is so difficult, problem behavior can be a much more effective way to get your point across” (2.1). He does not have the language to use so instead he uses aggression. I would model positive behavior and give Jose the words to use. I will accomplish this by reading books like “ Hand are not For Hitting”.

The third challenging behavior that Jose exhibits is that Jose has trouble sitting still in circle time and gets out of his chair during the day. As stated in the text Kaiser & Sklar Rasminsky (2017),  “since no behavior exists in a vacuum, it’s essential to develop a safe, caring, cooperative, inclusive social climate and physical space; clear rules, routines, and procedures; an interesting, relevant, differentiated curriculum; and instruction that offers lots of choice” (sec.9.1).From prior experience a 2-year-old child should not be required to sat in a chair for a long period of time and circle time should not exceed over 15 minutes for this age group. It is in their nature to wiggle around. Some things to help make it easier in circle time is to allow them to wiggle around, you can provide squares so that they can have their own space to wiggle in without disturbing the other children. I would offer fidget toys to help the students that need something to play with. Making the rules clear and repeating them helps the child knows what is expected in the classroom. Another possibility could be he has ADHD or some other type of disability. I would speak with the parents to see if this could be a possibility.


Kaiser, B., & Sklar Rasminsky, J. (2017). Challenging behavior in young children: Understanding, preventing, and responding effectively (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

In your responses to no fewer than two of your classmates, compare and contrast your respective choices of literature, issues/cases, and theoretical approaches. Offer constructive criticism and argument regarding your respective conclusions. Additionally, identify any insights you have gained as a result of reading the responses of others.


Emerging Adulthood

Emerging adulthood is a developmental stage it is a transition between adolescence and early adulthood. It is said that between late teenage years into the twenties these years are known to have a great deal of change and importance (Smith-Osborne, 2007).

Resilience is something one gains throughout one’s life due to adversities this resilience helps strengthen who you are and who you can become, and helps emerging adults through life’s up’s and down’s, and lifespan is about development that occurs continuously throughout one’s life. Development does not cease we undergo development through different experiences in our life, we continue to learn and grow throughout our lives from experiences as well as from others.

One of the journals I found talks about how traumatic childhood experiences can affect the outcomes of emerging adults. This journal states that dealing with adversity and traumatic experiences early in life such as in childhood and adolescence can harm the lives of young adults. The effect of adverse childhood experiences has been linked to maladaptive behavior leading young adults into the juvenile justice system. The adverse childhood experiences can be anything relating to; “Sexual, physical or emotional abuse or emotional and physical neglect” (Gomis-Pomares & Villanueva, 2020 p. 33). These experiences if not dealt with can continue to have effects throughout a person’s life. Therefore, focusing on the lifespan theory. Anything that occurs to a person early in life can continue to affect them throughout their life. Many go one to receive therapy for such adverse experiences. However, many flies under the radar, and unfortunately these are the people that find themselves encountering the juvenile justice system.

Some have also found that besides the fact that some children have undergone such adverse experiences some have not demonstrated maladaptive behaviors on the contrary some that have found themselves in adverse situations have built resilience helping them adapt and accomplish their goals. (Gomis-Pomares & Villanueva, 2020).

The second journal I found speaks about the resilience some young adults have to have when faced with adversity. The journal identifies the difficulties young adults face when exiting foster care, these young adults require additional assistance due to the lack of care they had previously encountered, and the lack of resources found for people their age. The assistance and support young adults receive helps them withstand the adversities that they have had to face in their past, and in turn helping them built that resilience, and accomplish goals that they may have set for themselves (Packard & Benuto, 2020).

I believe that the strength of the lifespan theory revolves around the fact that development does not stop once one reaches adulthood. One continues to grow and develop due to future life experiences as well as what one can learn from those around us, therefore affecting us cognitively and emotionally. However, lifespan does not focus on or mention resilience. I believe that the strength of the resiliency theory lies in the fact that one can reach a positive outcome in life from life’s ups and downs. When I was interviewing for my current position as an assistant manager my boss at the time asked me how could he ensure that my past experiences in life would not affect my job performance as an assistant manager? My response to him was that although I had been through hard times in my life I would not allow my past to define my future, on the other hand, I would allow my past to be a constant reminder of what not to do so that I could maintain my focus on what I want to achieve not only as an assistant manager but in life. For me, the shortcomings of resiliency theory are the way it is acquired; by heartache and pain. For one to gain resilience one has to undergo multiple vicissitudes in life.


Gomis-Pomares, A., & Villanueva, L. (2020). The effect of adverse childhood experiences on

deviant and altruistic behavior during emerging adulthood. Psicothema, 32 (1), 33-39.

Packard, F. E., & Benuto, L. T. (2020). Examining social support needs of emerging adults transitioning out of

foster care. Child welfare, 98 (1), 51-72

Smith-Osborne, A. (2007). Life span and resiliency theory: A  critical review. Advances in Social

         Work, 8(1), 152-168. Retrieved

From http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/view/138/139 (Links to an external                       site.) (Links to an external site.)


Emerging Adulthood

Throughout our four weeks of studying, we have been able to learn and acquire a better understanding of the lifespan theory’s, learning from birth until early adulthood. We have learned the different theorists from Freud, Piaget, Erickson, Vygotsky, and several others. We gain a better understanding of the different fundamentals of growing and grasping knowledge, through our influences and surroundings. Today, we bring a focus on Emerging Adulthood, which according to Arnett (2000), is a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25. During these stages, Arnett explains that there are differences between adolescence and young adulthood. This has become a new concept because, before marriage and parenthood was a norm around this age. In emerging adulthood, the individual no longer considers themselves adolescents, but do not see themselves as a complete adult. They are exploring who they are, focusing on themselves, trying different possibilities in different areas in life. Arnett (2000) states that emerging adulthood exists only in cultures that allow young people a prolonged period of independent role exploration during the late teens and twenties. Some struggles during this stage are mood dis s such as anxiety, substance use which affect their daily function making it difficult to find successful careers. Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016), identified this struggle as identity diffusion, which is a state of noncommitment to any social or occupational choices that may cause the individual to feel confused about goals, sexual identity, or gender roles. The lack of occupational or social dedication makes it difficult to sustain a relationship. This struggle will result in individuals who are more than likely to become isolated. Dr. Alyssa Gilston provided some insightful information regarding resiliency to help individuals bounce back as I like to say. She stated that Resiliency is something we can develop purposefully while others cannot, it is the ability to problem-solve during a crisis, their ability to cope, thinking into a wider perspective, being compassionate and empathic. Overall, resiliency is needed daily as we confront several issues, crises, and emotions through our day and life, knowing how to deal with daily minor challenges through resilience will help us have a healthier and better life.

Article 1: There are a Lot of Good Things that Come Out of it at the End’: Voices of Resilience in Youth Formerly in Foster Care During Emerging Adulthood.

Summary: According to Hokanson, et al (2019) This study uses interviews with 20 youth formerly in foster care who have experienced trauma and complex histories, but exhibit better-than-average outcomes to explore contextual aspects of resilience during emerging adulthood, elucidating how both relational and organizational support contribute to their resilience. Implications for social work policy and practice are discussed.

Method: This study was conducted through a semi-structured interview that was designed to learn about emerging adults’ experiences in the child welfare system. They were recruited from two programs serving foster youth in 2011-2012. Eligible participants needed to be currently for formerly in foster care. Interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Participants received a $20 gift card as an incentive.

Result: Through the interviews conducted, based on the youth in foster care they can have many, often under-recognized promoters of resilience’s in their lives. Some that were identified are families of origin as important contributors, agencies, and workers. Many elaborated on the helpfulness of their foster parents and social workers, who provided both instrumental and emotional support.

Strengths: They were able to provide housing, tuition, financial, and emotional support.

Shortcomings: Areas for improvement include providing support without work or school requirements and affording increased opportunities for independence during their late teens.

Cognitive: The sociocultural theory of cognition, plays a big role in this study. As mention in Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016) Lev Vygotsky emphasizes the importance of social interaction to facilitate individual achievement. I feel that the youth in foster care learned survival skills as well as other skills by the natural support that surrounded them. The zone of proximal development and scaffolding also play a role as the youth were not able to learn basic skills with the assistance of a more knowledgeable other (MKO) in this case a biological parent, agency, or social worker.

Personality: Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development explains how these youth were affected positively through the child welfare system although they had trauma and complex histories. Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016) related that Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development focused on social influences during the lifespan. Each development period is marked by a psychosocial challenge that can have either a favorable or unfavorable outcome. In this case, the influences of the child welfare system provided a favorable outcome.

Article 2: The relationship between resilience and the Big Five Personality Traits in Emerging Adulthood.

Summary: The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the resilience level of individuals in emerging adulthood and the big five personality traits. When faced with various life challenges such as the death of a relative, chronic illnesses, harassment, assault, unemployment, etc., some individuals manage to cope with such conditions while others fail to do so (Ercan, H. 2017).

Method: A quantitative approach was used for this study. Participants were selected through a purposeful sampling method; the participant was asked to fill out personal information forms and resilience scale for adults and take an adjective-based personality test. The correlation, T-test, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to establish the relationship between the variables (Ercan, H. 2017).

Result: There is a relationship between resilience and the big five personality traits. it can be argued that the findings of this study present indicators suggesting that the big five personality traits can be employed functionally to account for resilience. His analysis offers evidence as to the generalizability of characteristics on resilience and personality.

Strengths: Helps the individual understand the resiliency level in emerging adulthood.

Shortcomings: This study was more general and culture was not taken into consideration. Males had higher scores in the perception of self than female participants in which had to do with the societal characteristics of the group participating in the study.

Cognitive: Vygotsky’s theory of social constructivism relates to this article. He emphasizes the vastly different social variables that influenced development. Speech and written language, manner, gaming cooking skills, and how to operate tablets, etc., are all tools that facilitate the construct development. At first, according to Vygotsky, it is learning a social experience; it then transitions to one that is individual. In this study, everyone had a different response to a crisis. We all learn that if someone deceases we mourn, but each responds differently whether they get depressed, cry, or bounce back to their daily life.

Personality: The trait theory focuses more on this article. Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016), defines trait theory as personality is heavily influenced by biology and genetics. Trait theory, therefore, focuses on measuring recurring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

Similarities and Differences

Both of these articles showed how resiliency can be achieved through each individual. They both had to pass through some trauma or highly complex history and were able to cope with the situation through resiliency. Although, resilience is a dynamic process during the life cycle of the individual and continues to change as the individual grows. Both articles demonstrate that each individual had influences in their lives that somehow influence their behavior and thinking, which allowed them to adapt to the negative situation that impacted their lives. Vygotsky’s theory played a role in each article as the environment can affect what we learn and behaviors. On the other hand, in Hokanson, et al (2019) study, the emerging adult had a more knowledgeable person involved to learn the behavior. Culture and genetics did not play a big role as it did in Ercan, H. (2017) study.


Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480.

Ercan, H. (2017). The Relationship between Resilience and the Big Five Personality Traits in Emerging Adulthood. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 70, 83–103.

Hokanson, K., Neville, S. E., Teixeira, S., Singer, E., & Berzin, S. C. (2019). ‘There are a Lot of Good Things that Come Out of it at the End’: Voices of Resilience in Youth Formerly in Foster Care During Emerging Adulthood. Child Welfare, 97(6), 233–249.

Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016). Understanding Development: A Lifespan Perspective. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc

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