Question 1 In California there has been land subsidence due to over pumping of the ground water. According to the ground water movie, how much subsidence occurred in the Central Valley of California in the San Joaquin Valley from 1925 to 1977. 10 ft or 3m 60 ft or 18m 200 ft or 61 m 30 ft or 9mQuestion 2 In the ground water movie, Mr. William Cunningham, talks about the irrigation distribution and he points at two things, please choose the point that he made. 1. Western 17 states use much more groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states; 2. Western 31 states have decreased their ground water uses (for irrigation) significantly over the last 6 decades (1960 -2000). 1. Western 17 states use much less groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states.; 2. Western States are using increasingly more water every year (1960 -2000). 1. Western 17 states use much less groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states.; 2. Western 31 states have decreased their ground water uses (for irrigation) significantly over the last 6 decades (1960 -2000). 1. Western 17 states use much more groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states.; 2. Western States are using increasingly more water every year (1960 -2000).Question 3 What is true about porosity? Choose all correct answers, more than one answers are correct. percentage of open space within an unconsolidated sediment or a rockConsolidation and cementation during the process of lithification of unconsolidated sediments into sedimentary rocks enhances primary porosity Unconsolidated sediments tend to have lower porosity than consolidated ones because they have no cement, and most have not been strongly compressed It is expressed as a percentage calculated from the volume of open space in a rock compared with the total volume of rock.Question 4 What approximate percentage of the total amount of water on planet Earth is fresh (not salty)? 10% 17% 3% 1%Question 5 Which of these are top three water aquifers in the USA?Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie. Ogallala Aquifer- High Plains aquifer Rio Grande aquifer system Central Valley aquifer system- California Edward-Trinity Aquifer Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquiferQuestion 6 US population has increased from (around)150 million in 1950 to 300 million in year 2010. As a nation, US has ________________ its ground water usage in the last decade years (from year 2000 to 2010).Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie. increased significantly decreased slightly decreased catastrophically increased slightlyQuestion 7 According to the ground water movie, around 50 % of the river(stream) water comes from the ground water. In the movies example of two streams on B in North Dakota the stream flow is 90% made of run off and only 10% ground water. Whereas in case of C., an stream in Michigan, has 90 % groundwater and 10 % run off water contribution. What kind of rocks are present in these two aquifers? B is mostly limestone which are fine grained rocks and do not allow the movement of water;C. is mostly shale and gypsum, which are coarse grained rocks with high permeability and allow the movement of water. B is mostly silt and clay, which are fine grained rocks and do not allow the movement of water; and C. is mostly sand and gravel, which are coarse grained rocks with high permeability and allow the movement of water. B is mostly oil rich shale and C is mostly silty limestone. B. is mostly pebbles and gravel, which are coarse grained rocks with high permeability and allow the movement of water.; and C is mostly dolostone and limestone, which are fine grained rocks and do not allow the movement of water;Question 8 Ground water is seeping into a gaining stream. A water well is drilled next to the stream.Below are some events,A. Initially the water comes from the aquifer storage, and not from the stream. But, significant amount of ground water is seeping into the stream.B. At later time, the water table is moved down at the location of the water well and slightly less water is coming to the pump, and very small amount of water is seeping into the stream.C. At event later stage, more water flows into the stream and the water well does not produce water anymore.D. After longer time, if the pumping is high enough, the flows from the stream into the ground water system and the water well produces both the aquifer water and stream water.Which one of these are possible results of the interaction of stream and the water well?Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie. A, B, C and D A, B and D A and D B and C.Question 9 According to the USGS five year report in 2010, which these were the top three states using ground water for public supply (>1,000 million gallons of water per day)? Choose all three correct answers.Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie. Arkansas California Washington Texas Montana FloridaQuestion 10 In case of a gaining stream, __________?__________.Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie.the watertable is above the stream water level and groundwater seeps into the stream. the water seeps from the stream to aquifer and raises the water table. gains the velocity and amount of sediments upstream. flows through Gaines county TexasQuestion 11 The difference between “deserts” and “steppes” is _______________? deserts are found in Both North and South America, steppes are found in Africa and Asia deserts contain mostly sand, steppes are made up of gravel and rocks deserts are arid (rain < 10inch), steppes are semiarid(rain 10-20inch) deserts have rain only in the summer, steppes have rain mostly in the winterQuestion 12 The Great Basin desert is an example of a ___________________? desert in Africa rain shadow desert low latitude desert in the Tropic of Cancer low latitude desert in the Tropic of CapricornQuestion 13 Alluvial fans form where stream gradients change from steep to flat. This happens when an stream flows from a steep mountain to a flat land.When the sediment-rich water loses energy at the foot of the mountains, it forms a ____________.meandering stream playa lake braided stream bajadaQuestion 14 Sand is carried by the wind as _________________________? suspended load dissolved loadbedloadall of the other answersQuestion 15 Wind abrasion produces ______________________. sand dunes and blowouts blowouts and desert pavement ventifactssand dunes and ventifactsQuestion 16 Deserts are defined as _______________________? areas with sand dunes areas with very little rainfall areas with minimal rainfall and high evaporation rates areas with vulturesQuestion 17 A dry lake bed in the desert is called a ________________? mirage playa bajada alluvial fanQuestion 18 Bajadas form from coalesced _______________________? drainage basins sinkholes playas alluvial fansQuestion 19 The Sahara desert is an example of a ________________________? desert in North America rain shadow desert low latitude desert in the Tropic of Cancer low latitude desert in the Tropic of CapricornQuestion 20 The major erosive agent in deserts is ____________? wind running water herds of grazing animals tornadoesQuestion 21 Star dunes form only in north American deserts when two different types of dunes grow together due to variation in wind flow and direction. where the wind direction is always from the north where the wind direction is perpendicular to the orientation of the dunes when there is a strong onshore wind, the sand supply is abundant and there is lots of vegetation
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