Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach

Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach

Thirteenth Edition

James M. Henslin Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Henslin, James M., author. Title: Sociology : a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville. Description: Thirteenth edition. | Boston : Pearson Education, [2017] Identifiers: LCCN 2015043067 | ISBN 9780134205571 Subjects: LCSH: Sociology. Classification: LCC HM586. H45 2017 | DDC 301–dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015043067

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Student Edition: ISBN-10: 0-13-420557-X ISBN-13: 978-0-13-420557-1

Books A La Carte ISBN 10: 0-13-420559-6 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-420559-5

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To my fellow sociologists, who do such creative research on social life and who communicate the sociological imagination to generations of students. With my sincere admiration and appreciation,

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1 The Sociological Perspective 1

2 Culture 34

3 Socialization 63

4 Social Structure and Social Interaction 96

5 How Sociologists Do Research 127

6 Societies to Social Networks 148

7 Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations 174

8 Deviance and Social Control 196

9 Global Stratification 228

10 Social Class in the United States 261

11 Sex and Gender 294

12 Race and Ethnicity 326

13 The Elderly 365

14 The Economy 394

15 Politics 427

16 Marriage and Family 459

17 Education 493

18 Religion 520

19 Medicine and Health 555

20 Population and Urbanization 587

21 Collective Behavior and Social Movements 622

22 Social Change and the Environment 648

Brief Contents

iv

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To the Student . . . from the Author xix To the Instructor . . . from the Author xx About the Author xxxi

1 The Sociological Perspective 1 The Sociological Perspective 3

Seeing the Broader Social Context 3 The Global Context—and the Local 4

Sociology and the Other Sciences 5 The Natural Sciences 5 The Social Sciences 5

Anthropology  6  •  Economics  6  •  politicAl  sciEncE  6  •  psychology   6  •  sociology  6

The Goals of Science 7 The Risks of Being a Sociologist 8

Origins of Sociology 8 Tradition versus Science 8 Auguste Comte and Positivism 9 Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism 9 Karl Marx and Class Conflict 10 Emile Durkheim and Social Integration 11

Applying DurkhEim  12

Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic 13 rEligion AnD thE origin of cApitAlism  13

Values in Sociological Research 13

Verstehen and Social Facts 14 Weber and Verstehen 14 Durkheim and Social Facts 15 How Social Facts and Verstehen Fit Together 15

Sociology in North America 16 Sexism at the Time: Women in Early Sociology 16 Racism at the Time: W. E. B. Du Bois 18 Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer 20

Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills: Theory versus Reform 20

The Continuing Tension: Basic, Applied, and Public Sociology 21 BAsic sociology  21 •  AppliED sociology  21  •  puBlic  sociology  21  •  sociAl rEform is risky  22

Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 23 Symbolic Interactionism 24

symBols in EvEryDAy lifE  24  •  Applying symBolic  intErActionism  24  •

Functional Analysis 26 roBErt mErton AnD functionAlism  26  •  Applying  functionAl AnAlysis  26

Conflict Theory 28 kArl mArx AnD conflict thEory  28  •  conflict thEory  toDAy  28  •  fEminists AnD conflict thEory  28  •  Applying conflict thEory  29

Putting the Theoretical Perspectives Together 29 Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro 29

Trends Shaping the Future of Sociology 30 Sociology’s Tension: Research versus Reform 30

thrEE stAgEs in sociology  30  •  DivErsity of  oriEntAtions  30

Globalization 31 ApplicAtion of gloBAlizAtion to this tExt  31

summary and review  31 thinking critically about chapter 1 33

2 Culture 34 What Is Culture? 36

Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientations to Life 36 Practicing Cultural Relativism 38

AttAck on culturAl rElAtivism  42

Components of Symbolic Culture 42 Gestures 42

misunDErstAnDing AnD offEnsE 42  •  univErsAl  gEsturEs? 43

Language 43 lAnguAgE Allows humAn ExpEriEncE to BE  cumulAtivE 44  •  lAnguAgE proviDEs A sociAl  or shArED pAst 44  •  lAnguAgE proviDEs A sociAl  or shArED futurE 44  •  lAnguAgE Allows shArED  pErspEctivEs 44  •  lAnguAgE Allows shArED,  goAl-DirEctED BEhAvior 45

Language and Perception: The Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis 46 Values, Norms, and Sanctions 46 Folkways, Mores, and Taboos 48

Many Cultural Worlds 49 Subcultures 49 Countercultures 52

Values in U.S. Society 52 An Overview of U.S. Values 52 Value Clusters 53 Value Contradictions 53 An Emerging Value Cluster 54 When Values Clash 55 Values as Distorting Lenses 55 “Ideal” versus “Real” Culture 55

Cultural Universals 56

Sociobiology and Human Behavior 57

Technology in the Global Village 58 The New Technology 58 Cultural Lag and Cultural Change 58 Technology and Cultural Leveling 60 summary and review 61 thinking critically about chapter 2 62

Contents

v

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vi  contents

3 Socialization 63 Society Makes Us Human 65

Feral Children 65 Isolated Children 66 Institutionalized Children 67

thE orphAnAgE ExpErimEnt in thE unitED stAtEs 67  •  thE orphAnAgE ExpErimEnt in romAniA 68  •  timing  AnD humAn DEvElopmEnt 68

Deprived Animals 69

Socialization into the Self and Mind 70 Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self 70 Mead and Role Taking 70 Piaget and the Development of Reasoning 72 Global Aspects of the Self and Reasoning 73

Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions 73 Freud and the Development of Personality 73

sociologicAl EvAluAtion 74

Kohlberg and the Development of Morality 74 kohlBErg’s thEory 74  •  criticisms of  kohlBErg 75  •  rEsEArch with BABiEs 75  •  thE  culturAl rElAtivity of morAlity 75

Socialization into Emotions 75 gloBAl Emotions 75  •  ExprEssing Emotions:  “gEnDEr rulEs” 75  •  thE ExtEnt of “fEEling  rulEs” 76  •  whAt wE fEEl  76  •  rEsEArch nEEDED 76

Society within Us: The Self and Emotions as  Social Control 77

Socialization into Gender 77 Learning the Gender Map 77 Gender Messages in the Family 77

pArEnts 77  •  toys AnD plAy 78 •  sAmE-sEx pArEnts 80

Gender Messages from Peers 80 Gender Messages in the Mass Media 80

tElEvision, moviEs, AnD cArtoons 81 •  viDEo gAmEs 81  •  ADvErtising 81

Agents of Socialization 83 The Family 83

sociAl clAss AnD typE of work 83 •  sociAl clAss AnD plAy 83

The Neighborhood 84 Religion 84 Day Care 84 The School 85 Peer Groups 85 The Workplace 88

Resocialization 88 Total Institutions 88

Socialization through the Life Course 90 Childhood (from birth to about age 12) 90 Adolescence (ages 13–17) 91 Transitional Adulthood (ages 18–29) 91

“Bring your pArEnts to work DAy.” 92

The Middle Years (ages 30–65) 92 thE EArly miDDlE yEArs (AgEs 30–49) 92 •  thE lAtEr miDDlE yEArs (AgEs 50–65) 92

The Older Years (about age 65 on) 92 thE trAnsitionAl olDEr yEArs (AgEs 65–74) 92  •  thE lAtEr olDEr yEArs (AgE 75 or so on) 93

Applying the Sociological Perspective to the Life Course 93

Are We Prisoners of Socialization? 93 summary and review 94 thinking critically about chapter 3 95

4 Social Structure and Social Interaction 96 Levels of Sociological Analysis 98

Macrosociology and Microsociology 98

The Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure 99 The Sociological Significance of Social Structure 99 Culture 101 Social Class 101 Social Status 101

stAtus sEts 101  •  AscriBED AnD AchiEvED  stAtusEs 101  •  stAtus symBols 102  •  mAstEr  stAtusEs 102  •  stAtus inconsistEncy 102

Roles 103 Groups 103 Social Institutions 104 Comparing Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives 105

thE functionAlist pErspEctivE 105  •  thE conflict  pErspEctivE 106

Changes in Social Structure 106 What Holds Society Together? 106

mEchAnicAl AnD orgAnic soliDArity 106 •  Gemeinschaft AnD Gesellschaft 107 •  how rElEvAnt ArE thEsE concEpts toDAy? 107

The Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life 109

Symbolic Interaction 109 stErEotypEs in EvEryDAy lifE 109  •  pErsonAl  spAcE 113  •  EyE contAct 114  •   smiling 114 •  BoDy lAnguAgE 114  •  AppliED BoDy lAnguAgE 114

Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 114 stAgEs 115  •  rolE pErformAncE, conflict, AnD  strAin  115  •  sign-vEhiclEs 115  •  tEAmwork 116 •  BEcoming thE rolEs wE plAy 118  •  Applying  imprEssion mAnAgEmEnt 118

Ethnomethodology: Uncovering Background Assumptions 119 The Social Construction of Reality 120   •  gynEcologicAl ExAminAtions 120

The Need for both Macrosociology and Microsociology 122 summary and review 125 thinking critically about chapter 4 126

5 How Sociologists Do Research 127 What Is a Valid Sociological Topic? 129

Common Sense and the Need for Sociological Research 129

A Research Model 129 1. Selecting a Topic 130 2. Defining the Problem 130

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contents vii

3. Reviewing the Literature 130 4. Formulating a Hypothesis 130 5. Choosing a Research Method 130 6. Collecting the Data 130 7. Analyzing the Results 131 8. Sharing the Results 131

Research Methods (Designs) 131 Surveys 133

sElEcting A sAmplE 133  •  Asking nEutrAl  QuEstions 134  •  QuEstionnAirEs AnD  intErviEws 134  •  EstABlishing rApport 136

Participant Observation (Fieldwork) 136 Case Studies 137 Secondary Analysis 137 Analysis of Documents 137 Experiments 139 Unobtrusive Measures 141 Deciding Which Method to Use 141 Controversy in Sociological Research 141

Gender in Sociological Research 143

Ethics in Sociological Research 143 Protecting the Subjects: The Brajuha Research 144 Misleading the Subjects: The Humphreys Research 144

How Research and Theory Work Together 145 The Real World: When the Ideal Meets the Real 145 summary and review  147 thinking critically about chapter 5  147

6 Societies to Social Networks 148 Societies and Their Transformation 150

Hunting and Gathering Societies 150 Pastoral and Horticultural Societies 152 Agricultural Societies 152 Industrial Societies 153 Postindustrial (Information) Societies 154 Biotech Societies: Is a New Type of

Society Emerging? 154

Groups within Society 156 Primary Groups 158

proDucing A mirror within 158

Secondary Groups 158 In-Groups and Out-Groups 158

shAping pErcEption AnD morAlity 159

Reference Groups 159 EvAluAting oursElvEs 160  •  ExposurE to  contrADictory stAnDArDs in A sociAlly DivErsE  sociEty 160

Social Networks 160 AppliED nEtwork AnAlysis 161  •  thE smAll worlD  phEnomEnon 161  •  is thE smAll worlD phEnomEnon  An AcADEmic myth? 162  •  BuilDing unintEntionAl  BArriErs 162

Group Dynamics 162 Effects of Group Size on Stability and Intimacy 163 Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior 164

lABorAtory finDings AnD thE rEAl worlD 165

Leadership 167 who BEcomEs A lEADEr? 167  •  typEs of lEADErs 167  •  lEADErship stylEs 168  •  lEADErship stylEs in  chAnging situAtions 168

The Power of Peer Pressure: The Asch Experiment 169

The Power of Authority: The Milgram Experiment 170 Global Consequences of Group Dynamics:

Groupthink 171 prEvEnting groupthink 172

summary and review 172 thinking critically about chapter 6 173

7 Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations 174

The Rationalization of Society 176 Why Did Society Make a Deep Shift in Human

Relationships? 176 lifE in trADitionAl sociEtiEs 176  •  thE shift  to rAtionAlity As sociEtiEs inDustriAlizED 176

Marx: Capitalism Broke Tradition 178

Weber: Religion Broke Tradition 178 thE two viEws toDAy 178

Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies 179 Formal Organizations 179 The Characteristics of Bureaucracies 179 “Ideal” versus “Real” Bureaucracy 181 Goal Displacement and the Perpetuation of

Bureaucracies 183 Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies 184

rED tApE: A rulE is A rulE 184  •  lAck of  communicAtion BEtwEEn units 184 •  BurEAucrAtic incompEtEncE 184

Alienation of Workers 185 cAusEs of AliEnAtion 185  •  thE AliEnAtED  BurEAucrAt 186  •  rEsisting AliEnAtion 186

Voluntary Associations 187 Functions of Voluntary Associations 187 Motivations for Joining 188 The Inner Circle and the “Iron Law” of Oligarchy 188

thE innEr circlE 188  •  thE iron lAw of  oligArchy  188

Working for the Corporation 189 Humanizing the Work Setting 189

workEr EmpowErmEnt 189  •  corporAtE chilD  cArE 190  •  thE conflict pErspEctivE 190  •  workErs’  AttEmpts to humAnizE work 190

Fads in Corporate Culture 190 Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes in the “Hidden”

Corporate Culture 192 sElf-fulfilling stErEotypEs AnD promotions 192

Diversity in the Workplace 192

Technology and the Maximum-Security Society 193 summary and review 195 thinking critically about chapter 7 195

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viii  contents

8 Deviance and Social Control 196 What Is Deviance? 198

thE rElAtivity of DEviAncE 198  •  A nEutrAl  tErm 198  •  stigmA 199

How Norms Make Social Life Possible 199 Sanctions 200 Competing Explanations of Deviance: Sociobiology,

Psychology, and Sociology 200 BiosociAl ExplAnAtions 201  •  psychologicAl  ExplAnAtions 201  •  sociologicAl  ExplAnAtions 201

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 201 Differential Association Theory 202

ThE ThEory 202  •  fAmiliEs 202  •  friEnDs,  nEighBorhooDs, AnD suBculturEs 202 •  DiffErEntiAl AssociAtion in thE cyBEr  AgE 203  •  prison or frEEDom? 203

Control Theory 203 ThE ThEory 203  •  Applying control thEory 204

Labeling Theory 204 rEjEcting lABEls: how pEoplE nEutrAlizE  DEviAncE 204  •  Applying nEutrAlizAtion 206  •  EmBrAcing lABEls: thE ExAmplE of  outlAw BikErs 206  •  lABEls cAn BE  powErful 207  •  how Do lABEls work? 208

The Functionalist Perspective 208 Can Deviance Really Be Functional for Society? 208 Strain Theory: How Mainstream Values

Produce Deviance 209 four DEviAnt pAths 210

Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: Social Class and Crime 211 strEEt crimE 211  •  whitE-collAr  crimE 211  •  gEnDEr AnD crimE 213

The Conflict Perspective 214 Class, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System 214 The Criminal Justice System as an Instrument

of Oppression 214

Reactions to Deviance 216 Street Crime and Prisons 216 The Decline in Violent Crime 218 Recidivism 219 The Death Penalty and Bias 220

gEogrAphy 220  •  sociAl clAss 220  •  gEnDEr 220  •  rAcE–Ethnicity 222

The Trouble with Official Statistics 223 The Medicalization of Deviance:

Mental Illness 224 nEithEr mEntAl nor illnEss? 224  •  thE homElEss  mEntAlly ill 225

The Need for a More Humane Approach 226 summary and review 226 thinking critically about chapter 8 227

9 Global Stratification 228 Systems of Social Stratification 230

Slavery 231

cAusEs of slAvEry 231  •  conDitions of  slAvEry 231  •  BonDED lABor in thE nEw  worlD 232  •  slAvEry in thE nEw  worlD 232  •  slAvEry toDAy 232

Caste 233 inDiA’s rEligious cAstEs 233  •  south AfricA 234 •  A u.s. rAciAl cAstE systEm 235

Estate 236 womEn in thE EstAtE systEm 236

Class 236 Global Stratification and the Status of Females 237 The Global Superclass 237

What Determines Social Class? 238 Karl Marx: The Means of Production 238 Max Weber: Property, Power, and Prestige 239

Why Is Social Stratification Universal? 240 The Functionalist View: Motivating Qualified People 240

DAvis AnD moorE’s ExplAnAtion 240  •  tumin’s  critiQuE of DAvis AnD moorE 240

The Conflict Perspective: Class Conflict and Scarce Resources 241 moscA’s ArgumEnt 241  •  mArx’s ArgumEnt  242  •  currEnt ApplicAtions of conflict thEory 242

Lenski’s Synthesis 242

How Do Elites Maintain Stratification? 243 Soft Control versus Force 243

controlling pEoplE’s iDEAs 243  •  controlling informAtion 244  •  stifling  criticism 244  •  Big BrothEr  tEchnology 244

Comparative Social Stratification 245 Social Stratification in Great Britain 245 Social Stratification in the Former

Soviet Union 245

Global Stratification: Three Worlds 246

thE proBlEm with tErms 247

The Most Industrialized Nations 247 The Industrializing Nations 250 The Least Industrialized Nations 251 Modifying the Model 251

How Did the World’s Nations Become  Stratified? 254

Colonialism 254 World System Theory 254 Culture of Poverty 256 Evaluating the Theories 256

Maintaining Global Stratification 257 Neocolonialism 257

rElEvAncE toDAy 257

Multinational Corporations 257 ing politicAl stABility 258  •  unAnticipAtED  consEQuEncEs 258

Technology and Global Domination 258

Strains in the Global System 259 summary and review 259 thinking critically about chapter 9 260 260

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contents ix

10 Social Class in the United States 261 What Is Social Class? 263

Property 263 Distinguishing BEtwEEn wEAlth AnD incomE 263  •  DistriBution of propErty 264  •  DistriBution  of incomE 264

Power 266 thE DEmocrAtic fAcADE 266  •  thE powEr ElitE 266

Prestige 268 occupAtions AnD prEstigE 268  •  DisplAying  prEstigE 268

Status Inconsistency 269

Sociological Models of Social Class 270 Updating Marx 270 Updating Weber 272

thE cApitAlist clAss 273  •  thE uppEr-miDDlE  clAss 273  •  thE lowEr-miDDlE clAss 274  •  thE  working clAss 274  •  thE working poor 274  •  thE unDErclAss 275

Consequences of Social Class 275 Physical Health 276 Mental Health 276 Family Life 276

choicE of husBAnD or wifE 277 •  DivorcE 277  •  chilD rEAring 277

Education 277 Religion 277 Politics 278 Crime and Criminal Justice 278

Social Mobility 279 Three Types of Social Mobility 279 Women in Studies of Social Mobility 280 The Pain of Social Mobility 280

Poverty 283 Drawing the Poverty Line 283 Who Are the Poor? 284

thE gEogrAphy of povErty  284

rAcE–Ethnicity  286  •  EDucAtion  286 •  thE fEminizAtion of povErty  286  •  olD AgE  287

Children of Poverty 287 The Dynamics of Poverty versus the Culture of Poverty 287 Why Are People Poor? 289 Deferred Gratification 289 Where Is Horatio Alger? The Social Functions of a Myth 290

Peering into the Future: Will We Live in a Three-Tier Society? 291

summary and review 292 thinking critically about chapter 10 293

11 Sex and Gender 294 Issues of Sex and Gender 296

thE sociologicAl significAncE of gEnDEr 296

Gender Differences in Behavior: Biology or Culture? 296 The Dominant Position in Sociology 298 Opening the Door to Biology 298

A mEDicAl AcciDEnt  298  •  thE viEtnAm vEtErAns  stuDy 299  •  morE rEsEArch on humAns 299

Gender Inequality in Global Perspective 300 How Did Females Become a Minority Group? 301

humAn rEproDuction 301  •  hAnD-to-hAnD comBAt 303 •  which onE? 303  •  continuing DominAncE 303

Sex Typing of Work 303 Gender and the Prestige of Work 304 Other Areas of Global Discrimination 304

thE gloBAl gAp in EDucAtion 304  •  thE gloBAl  gAp in politics 304  •  thE gloBAl gAp in pAy 307 •  gloBAl violEncE AgAinst womEn 307

Gender Inequality in the United States 308 Fighting Back: The Rise of Feminism 308 Gender Inequality in Everyday Life 311

DEvAluAtion of things fEmininE 311

Gender Inequality in Health Care 311 Gender Inequality in Education 313

thE pAst 313  •  A funDAmEntAl chAngE 313  •  gEnDEr  trAcking 314  •  grADuAtE school AnD BEyonD 314

Gender Inequality in the Workplace 316 The Pay Gap 316

historicAl BAckgrounD 316  •  gEogrAphicAl  fActors 317  •  thE “tEstostEronE Bonus” 317 •  rEAsons for thE gEnDEr pAy gAp 319  •  thE cEo  powEr gAp 320

Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? 320 thE womEn who BrEAk through 320 •  AnD thE futurE? 320

Sexual Harassment—and Worse 321 lABEls AnD pErcEption 321  •  not just A  “mAn thing” 321  •  sExuAl oriEntAtion 321

Gender and Violence 321 Violence against Women 321

forciBlE rApE 321  •  DAtE (AcQuAintAncE)  rApE 322  •  murDEr 323  •  violEncE in  thE homE 323  •  fEminism AnD gEnDErED  violEncE 323  •  solutions 323

The Changing Face of Politics 323

Glimpsing the Future—with Hope 324 summary and review 324 thinking critically about chapter 11 325

12 Race and Ethnicity 326 Laying the Sociological Foundation 328

Race: Myth and Reality 328 thE rEAlity of humAn vAriEty 328  •  thE myth of purE  rAcEs 328  •  thE myth of A fixED numBEr of rAcEs 328 •  thE myth of rAciAl supEriority 328  •  thE myth  continuEs 331

Ethnic Groups 331 Minority Groups and Dominant Groups 332

not sizE, But DominAncE AnD DiscriminAtion 332 •  EmErgEncE of minority groups 332

Ethnic Work: Constructing Our Racial–Ethnic Identity 332

Prejudice and Discrimination 333 Learning Prejudice 333

Distinguishing BEtwEEn prEjuDicE AnD  DiscriminAtion 333  •  lEArning prEjuDicE

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from AssociAting with othErs 335  •  thE  fAr-rEAching nAturE of prEjuDicE 336 •  intErnAlizing DominAnt norms 336

Individual and Institutional Discrimination 338 homE mortgAgEs 338  •  hEAlth cArE 338

Theories of Prejudice 339 Psychological Perspectives 339

frustrAtion AnD scApEgoAts 339  •  thE AuthoritAriAn  pErsonAlity 340

Sociological Perspectives 340 functionAlism 340  •  conflict thEory 341 •  symBolic intErActionism 342  •  how lABEls  crEAtE prEjuDicE 342  •  lABEls AnD sElf-fulfilling  stErEotypEs 342

Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 343 Genocide 343 Population Transfer 344 Internal Colonialism 345 Segregation 345 Assimilation 345 Multiculturalism (Pluralism) 346

Racial–Ethnic Relations in the United States 346 European Americans 346 Latinos (Hispanics) 348

umBrEllA tErm 348  •  countriEs of origin 348 •  unAuthorizED immigrAnts 349  •  rEsiDEncE 351 •  spAnish 351  •  Economic wEll-BEing 351 •  politics 351

African Americans 352 rising ExpEctAtions AnD civil strifE 353 •  continuED gAins 354  •  currEnt lossEs 354  •  rAcE or sociAl clAss? A sociologicAl DEBAtE 354 •  rAcism As An EvEryDAy BurDEn 355

Asian Americans 355 A BAckgrounD of DiscriminAtion 356  •  DivErsity 356 •  rEAsons for finAnciAl succEss 356  •  politics 357

Native Americans 357 DivErsity of groups 357  •  from trEAtiEs to  gEnociDE AnD  populAtion trAnsfEr 358  •  thE  invisiBlE minority AnD sElf-DEtErminAtion 358  •  thE  cAsinos 359  •  DEtErmining iDEntity AnD goAls 359

Looking toward the Future 359 The Immigration Controversy 360 The Affirmative Action Controversy 360 Less Racism 362 Toward a True Multicultural Society 362 summary and review 363 thinking critically about chapter 12 364

13 The Elderly 365 Aging in Global Perspective 367

The Social Construction of Aging 367 Industrialization and the Graying of the Globe 368 The Graying of America 369

rAcE–Ethnicity AnD Aging 370  •  thE lifE spAn 371

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 372 When Are You “Old”? 372

chAnging pErcEptions As you AgE 372  •  four fActors in our DEcision 372

Changing Perceptions of the Elderly 373 shifting mEAnings 373

The Influence of the Mass Media 375

The Functionalist Perspective 376 Disengagement Theory 376

EvAluAtion of thE thEory 376

Activity Theory 377 EvAluAtion of thE thEory 377

Continuity Theory 377 EvAluAtion of thE thEory 377

The Conflict Perspective 378 Fighting for Resources: Social Security Legislation 378 Intergenerational Competition and Conflict 380 Fighting Back 382

thE grAy pAnthErs 382  •  thE AmEricAn AssociAtion  of rEtirED pErsons  383

Recurring Problems 383 Gender and Living Arrangements of the Elderly 383 Nursing Homes 383

unDErstAffing, DEhumAnizAtion, AnD DEAth 384

Elder Abuse 386 The Elderly Poor 386

rAcE–Ethnicity AnD povErty 386  •  gEnDEr  AnD povErty 386

The Sociology of Death and Dying 387 Industrialization and the New Technology 387 Death as a Process 387 Hospices 388 Suicide and Age 389 Adjusting to Death: The Importance of “Closure” 389

Looking toward the Future 390 New Views of Aging 390

crEAtivE Aging 390

The Impact of Technology 391 summary and review 392 thinking critically about chapter 13 393

14 The Economy 394 The Transformation of Economic Systems 396

Preindustrial Societies: The Birth of Inequality 396 Industrial Societies: The Birth of the Machine 396 Postindustrial Societies: The Birth of the Information Age 397 Biotech Societies: The Merger of Biology and Economics 397 Implications for Your Life 397

The Transformation of the Medium of Exchange 398

Earliest Mediums of Exchange 399 Medium of Exchange in Agricultural Societies 399 Medium of Exchange in Industrial Societies 399 Medium of Exchange in Postindustrial Societies 401

World Economic Systems 401 Capitalism 401

whAt cApitAlism is 401  •  whAt stAtE cApitAlism  is 401  •  thE DEvElopmEnt of stAtE cApitAlism 402

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contents xi

Socialism 403 whAt sociAlism is 403  •  sociAlism in prActicE 403  •  DEmocrAtic sociAlism 404

Ideologies of Capitalism and Socialism 404 Criticisms of Capitalism and Socialism 404 The Convergence of Capitalism and Socialism 405

chAngEs in sociAlist countriEs 405  •  chAngEs in  cApitAlism 406  •  possiBlE trAnsmErgEncE 407

The Functionalist Perspective on the Globalization of Capitalism 407

The New Global Division of Labor 407 Capitalism in a Global Economy 408

corporAtE cApitAlism 408  •  sEpArAtion of  ownErship AnD mAnAgEmEnt 408

Functions and Dysfunctions on a Global Scale 410

The Conflict Perspective on the Globalization of Capitalism 410 Making Capitalism Flourish: Profits and Self-Interests 410

corporAtE–politicAl connEctions 410  •  corporAtE  powEr AnD conspirAciEs 413  •  multiplying powEr:  intErlocking DirEctorships 413

The Global Superclass 413 Shifting Dominance and Power 414 Global Investing 414

Work in U.S. Society 417 The Transition to Postindustrial Society 417 Women and Work 417

thE QuiEt rEvolution 417  •  fEmAlE-mAlE work stylEs 418

The Underground Economy 419 Stagnant Paychecks 421 Patterns of Work and Leisure 421

work AnD lEisurE AnD thE trAnsformAtion  of EconomiEs 422  •  trEnDs in  lEisurE 422  •  tElEcommuting 422  •  thE moBilE shift 423

Global Capitalism and Our Future 423 The New Economic System and the Old Divisions

of Wealth 424 summary and review 425 thinking critically about chapter 14 426

15 Politics 427 Micropolitics and Macropolitics 429

Power, Authority, and Violence 429 Authority and Legitimate Violence 430

thE collApsE of Authority 430

Traditional Authority 431 Rational–Legal Authority 431 Charismatic Authority 432

thE thrEAt posED By chArismAtic lEADErs 432

Authority as Ideal Type 432 The Transfer of Authority 433

Types of Government 433 Monarchies: The Rise of the State 433 Democracies: Citizenship as a Revolutionary Idea 434 Dictatorships and Oligarchies: The Seizure of Power 436

The U.S. Political System 436 Political Parties and Elections 436

slicEs from thE cEntEr 437  •  thirD pArtiEs 437

Contrast with Democratic Systems in Europe 438 Voting Patterns 438

sociAl intEgrAtion 441  •  AliEnAtion 441 •  ApAthy 441  •  thE gEnDEr AnD rAciAl–Ethnic  gAps in voting 441

Lobbyists and Special-Interest Groups 441 loBBying By spEciAl-intErEst groups 442 •  thE monEy 442

Who Rules the United States? 443 The Functionalist Perspective: Pluralism 443 The Conflict Perspective: The Power Elite 444 Which View Is Right? 444

War and Terrorism: Implementing Political Objectives 446

Is War Universal? 446 How Common Is War? 446 Why Countries Go to War 447 The War Machine and the Profits of War 447 Costs of War 447 A Special Cost of War: Dehumanization 449

succEss AnD fAilurE of DEhumAnizAtion 449

Terrorism 451 Targeted Killings 454 Sowing the Seeds of Future Violence 455

sElling wAr tEchnology 455  •  AlignmEnts  AnD DisAlignmEnts 455

A New World Order? 456 Trends toward Unity 456 Inevitable Changes 456 summary and review 457 thinking critically about chapter 15 458

16 Marriage and Family 459 Marriage and Family in Global Perspective 461

What Is a Family? 461 What Is Marriage? 462 Common Cultural Themes 462

mAtE sElEction 462  •  DEscEnt 462  •  inhEritAncE 463 •  Authority 463

Marriage and Family in Theoretical Perspective 463 The Functionalist Perspective: Functions

and Dysfunctions 464 why thE fAmily is univErsAl 465  •  functions of thE  incEst tABoo 465  •  isolAtion AnD EmotionAl  ovErloAD 465

The Conflict Perspective: Struggles between Husbands and Wives 465

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Gender, Housework, and Child Care 466 chAngEs in trADitionAl gEnDEr oriEntAtions 466 •  pAiD work AnD housEwork 466  •  morE chilD  cArE 467  •  totAl hours 467  •  A gEnDEr Division  of lABor 467

The Family Life Cycle 467 Love and Courtship in Global Perspective 467 Marriage 469

thE sociAl chAnnEls of lovE AnD mArriAgE 469

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xii  contents

Childbirth 470 iDEAl fAmily sizE 470  •  mAritAl sAtisfAction 471

Child Rearing 472 mArriED couplEs AnD singlE mothErs 472  •  singlE  fAthErs 473  •  DAy cArE 474  •  nAnniEs 474  •  uBEr  As A pArEnt suBstitutE 474  •  sociAl clAss 474

Family Transitions 475 trAnsitionAl ADulthooD AnD thE not-so-Empty  nEst 475  •  wiDowhooD 475

Diversity in U.S. Families 476 African American Families 476 Latino Families 477 Asian American Families 478 Native American Families 478 One-Parent Families 479 Couples without Children 479 Blended Families 479 Gay and Lesbian Families 480

ADoption By gAy AnD lEsBiAn couplEs 480

Trends in U.S. Families 481 The Changing Timetable of Family Life: Marriage

and Childbirth 481 Cohabitation 481

cohABitAtion AnD mArriAgE: thE EssEntiAl  DiffErEncE 482  •  cohABitAtion AnD hEAlth 482  •  DoEs cohABitAtion mAkE mArriAgE strongEr? 482

The “Sandwich Generation” and Elder Care 483

Divorce and Remarriage 483 Ways of Measuring Divorce 483 Divorce and Mixed Racial–Ethnic Marriages 485 Children of Divorce 486

nEgAtivE EffEcts 486  •  whAt hElps chilDrEn ADjust  to DivorcE? 486  •  pErpEtuAting DivorcE 487

Grandchildren of Divorce: Ripples to the Future 487 Fathers’ Contact with Children after Divorce 487 The Ex-Spouses 487 Remarriage 488

Two Sides of Family Life 488 The Dark Side of Family Life: Battering, Child Abuse,

Marital Rape, and Incest 488 spousE BAttEring 488  •  chilD ABusE 488  •  mAritAl AnD  intimAcy rApE 489  •  incEst 489

The Bright Side of Family Life: Successful Marriages 490 succEssful mArriAgEs 490

Symbolic Interactionism and the Misuse of Statistics 490

The Future of Marriage and Family 491 summary and review 491 thinking critically about chapter 16 492

17 Education 493 The Development of Modern Education 495

Education in Earlier Societies 495 Industrialization and Universal Education 495

hoDgE-poDgE EDucAtion AnD nAtionAl  Disunity 495  •  inDustriAlizAtion AnD mAnDAtory  EDucAtion 496  •  thE ExpAnsion of EDucAtion 496

Education in Global Perspective 498

Education in the Most Industrialized Nations: Japan 498 Education in the Industrializing Nations: Russia 499 Education in the Least Industrialized Nations: Egypt 500

The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits 501 Teaching Knowledge and Skills 501 Cultural Transmission of Values 502 Social Integration 502

intEgrAting immigrAnts 502  •  stABilizing sociEty:  mAintAining thE stAtus Quo 502  •  intEgrAting  pEoplE with DisABilitiEs 502

Gatekeeping (Social Placement) 503 Replacing Family Functions 503 Other Functions 503

A surprising lAtEnt function 505

The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality 505 The Hidden Curriculum: Reproducing the Social

Class Structure 505 Tilting the Tests: Discrimination by IQ 506 Stacking the Deck: Unequal Funding 507 The Correspondence Principle 508 The Bottom Line: Family Background 508

rEproDucing thE sociAl clAss structurE 508

•  rEproDucing thE rAciAl–Ethnic structurE 508

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations 509

The Rist Research 509 The Rosenthal–Jacobson Experiment 510 How Do Teacher Expectations Work? 511 Self-Expectations 511

Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions 512 Mediocrity 513

thE rising tiDE of mEDiocrity 513  •  thE sAts 513  •  grADE inflAtion, sociAl  promotion, AnD functionAl illitErAcy 514

Raising Standards 514 rAising stAnDArDs for tEAchErs 514  •  A wArning  ABout highEr stAnDArDs 514

Cheating 515 thE solution to chEAting 515

Violence 516

Technology and Education 517 summary and review 518 thinking critically about chapter 17  519

18 Religion 520 What Is Religion? 522

The Functionalist Perspective 523 Functions of Religion 523

mEAning AnD purposE 523  •  EmotionAl  comfort 523  •  sociAl soliDArity 523  •  guiDElinEs  for EvEryDAy lifE 523  •  sociAl control 525  •  ADAptAtion 525  •  support for thE govErnmEnt 525 •  sociAl chAngE 525

Functional Equivalents of Religion 525

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contents xiii

Dysfunctions of Religion 526 rEligion As justificAtion for pErsEcution 526 •  wAr AnD tErrorism 526

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 528 Religious Symbols 528 Rituals 529 Beliefs 529 Religious Experience 529 Community 529

unity 529  •  Exclusion 532

The Conflict Perspective 532 Opium of the People 532 Legitimating Social Inequalities 532

Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism 533

The World’s Major Religions 534 Judaism 534 Christianity 536 Islam 536 Hinduism 538 Buddhism 539 Confucianism 539

Types of Religious Groups 540 Cult 541 Sect 542 Church 542 Ecclesia 543 Variations in Patterns 543 When Religion and Culture Conflict 543

Religion in the United States 544 Characteristics of Members 544

sociAl clAss AnD rEligious pArticipAtion 544 •  rAcE–Ethnicity 545

Characteristics of Religious Groups 545 DivErsity 545  •  plurAlism AnD frEEDom 546 •  compEtition AnD rEcruitmEnt 546 •  commitmEnt 546  •  tolErAtion 547 •  funDAmEntAlist rEvivAl 547 •  thE ElEctronic church 547

Secularization of Religion and Culture 549 thE sEculArizAtion of rEligion 549 •  thE sEculArizAtion of culturE 550

The Future of Religion 551 summary and review 552 thinking critically about chapter 18 554

19 Medicine and Health 555 Sociology and the Study of Medicine and Health 557

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 557 The Role of Culture in Defining Health and Illness 557 The Components of Health 558

The Functionalist Perspective 558 The Sick Role 558

ElEmEnts of thE sick rolE 558  •  AmBiguity  in thE sick rolE 558  •  gAtEkEEpErs to thE sick  rolE 559  •  gEnDEr DiffErEncEs in thE sick rolE 559

The Conflict Perspective 559 Global Stratification and Health Care 559 Establishing a Monopoly on U.S. Health Care 560

thE profEssionAlizAtion of mEDicinE 561  •  thE  monopoly of mEDicinE 562

Historical Patterns of Health 563 Physical Health 563

lEADing cAusEs of DEAth 563  •  wErE AmEricAns  hEAlthiEr in thE pAst? 564

Mental Health 564

Issues in Health Care 564 Medical Care: A Right or a Commodity? 565 Skyrocketing Costs 565 Social Inequality 565 Reducing Inequalities: Health Care Reform 566 Malpractice Lawsuits and Defensive Medicine 566 Medical Incompetence 567

DEAth By Doctors 567  •  using A chEcklist 567 •  fEDErAl cEntEr for pAtiEnt sAfEty 568

Depersonalization: The Medical Cash Machine 568 Conflict of Interest 569 Medical Fraud 569 Sexism and Racism in Medicine 570 The Medicalization of Society 570

thEorEticAl pErspEctivEs 570

Medically Assisted Suicide 570 Reducing the Costs of Medical Care 571

hEAlth mAintEnAncE orgAnizAtions 571 •  DiAgnosis-rElAtED groups 572  •  pAy-As-you- go clinics 572  •  group cArE 572  •  workplAcE  cArE 572  •  rEtAil hEAlth clinics 572 •  tElEmEDicinE 572  •  Dumping 573  •  rAtioning  mEDicAl cArE 573

Threats to Health 574 HIV/AIDS 574

origin 575  •  thE trAnsmission of hiv/AiDs 575 •  gEnDEr, circumcision, AnD rAcE–Ethnicity 575 •  thE stigmA of AiDs 576  •  is thErE A curE  for AiDs? 576

Weight: Too Much and Too Little 577 Alcohol and Nicotine 577

Alcohol 577  •  nicotinE 578

Disabling Environments 580 Medical Experiments: Callous and Harmful 580

thE tuskEgEE syphilis ExpErimEnt 580  •  thE  guAtEmAlAn ExpErimEnt 580  •  thE colD wAr  ExpErimEnts 580  •  plAying goD 581

Chicken Bones and the Globalization of Disease 581 ruBBing chickEn BonEs togEthEr 582

Treatment or Prevention? 582

The Future of Medicine 582 Alternative Medicine 583 Technology 584

DigitAl mEDicinE 584

summary and review 585 thinking critically about chapter 19 586

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xiv  contents

20 Population and Urbanization 587 Population in Global Perspective 589 A Planet with No Space for Enjoying Life? 589

The New Malthusians 589 The Anti-Malthusians 591 Who Is Correct? 592 Why Are People Starving? 593

Population Growth 595

Why the Least Industrialized Nations Have So Many Children 596

Consequences of Rapid Population Growth 597 Population Pyramids as a Tool

for Understanding 598 The Three Demographic Variables 598

fErtility 598  •  mortAlity 599  •  migrAtion 599

Problems in Forecasting Population Growth 600

Urbanization 604 The Development of Cities 605

Urbanization 605 thE AppEAl of citiEs 605  •  forcED  urBAnizAtion 608  •  mEtropolisEs 608 •  mEgAlopolisEs 608  •  mEgAcitiEs 608 •  mEgArEgions 608

U.S. Urban Patterns 608 from country to city 608  •  from city to  city 609  •  BEtwEEn citiEs 610  •  within thE city 610  •  from city to suBurB AnD  BAck 610  •  smAllEr cEntErs 610

Models of Urban Growth 612 The Concentric Zone Model 612 The Sector Model 612 The Multiple-Nuclei Model 613 The Peripheral Model 613 Critique of the Models 614

City Life 615 Alienation in the City 615 Community in the City 616 Who Lives in the City? 616

thE cosmopolitEs 616  •  thE singlEs 616  •  thE  Ethnic villAgErs 616  •  thE DEprivED 617  •  thE  TrAppED 617  •  critiQuE 617

The Norm of Noninvolvement and the Diffusion of Responsibility 617 tuning out: thE norm of noninvolvEmEnt 617

Urban Problems and Social Policy 618 Suburbanization 618

city vErsus suBurB 618  •  suBurBAn  flight 619  •  living At thE mAll 619

Disinvestment and Deindustrialization 619 The Potential of Urban Revitalization 619

puBlic sociology 620

summary and review 620  thinking critically about chapter 20 621

21 Collective Behavior and Social Movements 622

Collective Behavior 624 Early Explanations: The Transformation of People 624

How Crowds Change People 624 The Acting Crowd 625

The Contemporary View: The Rationality of the Crowd 626 The Minimax Strategy 626 Emergent Norms 626 How Sociologists Study Collective Behavior 627

Forms of Collective Behavior 627 Riots 627

pArticipAnts in riots 628

Rumors 629 Panics 630

thE clAssic pAnic  630

Mass Hysteria 632 Moral Panics 632 Fads and Fashions 634 Urban Legends 635

Social Movements 636 Types and Tactics of Social Movements 637

Types of Social Movements 637 Tactics of Social Movements 638

lEvEls of mEmBErship 638  •  thE puBlics 638 •  rElAtionship to AuthoritiEs 639

Multiple Realities and Social Movements 639 Propaganda and the Mass Media 639

gAtEkEEpErs to sociAl movEmEnts 641

Why People Join Social Movements 641 Relative Deprivation Theory: Improving

Status and Power 641 rElAtivity of DEprivAtion 641  •  rElAtivE DEprivAtion  AnD thE civil rights movEmEnt 642

Declining Privilege Theory: Protecting Status and Power 642

Moral Issues and Ideological Commitment 642

When Social Movements Pose a Threat to the Government 643

On the Success and Failure of Social Movements 643 The Rocky Road to Success 643 The Stages of Social Movements 644 Resurgence 645 summary and review 646 thinking critically about chapter 21 647

22 Social Change and the Environment 648 How Social Change Transforms Social Life 650

The Four Social Revolutions 650 From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft 650 The Industrial Revolution and Capitalism 651 Social Movements 652

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contents xv

Conflict, Power, and Global Politics 652 A BriEf history of gEopolitics 652  •  g7 plus 652  •  DiviDing up thE worlD 652  •  four thrEAts to this coAlition of  powErs 653  •  thE growing rElEvAncE of AfricA 654

Theories and Processes of Social Change 654 Evolution from Lower to Higher 654 Natural Cycles 655 Conflict over Power and Resources 655 Ogburn’s Theory 656

invEntion 656  •  DiscovEry 657  •  Diffusion 657 •  culturAl lAg 657  •  EvAluAtion of ogBurn’s  ThEory 657

How Technology Is Changing Our Lives 658 Extending Human Abilities 658 The Sociological Significance of Technology: How

Technology Changes Social Life 659 chAngEs in proDuction 659  •  chAngEs in workEr–ownEr  rElAtions 659  •  chAngEs in iDEology 659  •  chAngEs  in conspicuous consumption 659  •  chAngEs in fAmily  rElAtionships 660

When Old Technology Was New: The Impact of the Automobile 660 DisplAcEmEnt of Existing tEchnology 660  •  EffEcts on  citiEs 660  •  chAngEs in ArchitEcturE 661  •  chAngED  courtship customs AnD sExuAl norms  661  •  EffEcts on  womEn’s rolEs 661

The New Technology: The Microchip and Social Life 662

computErs in EDucAtion 662  •  computErs in  BusinEss AnD finAncE 663  •  computErs in  intErnAtionAl conflict 663

Cyberspace and Social Inequality 664

The Growth Machine versus the Earth 665 thE gloBAlizAtion of cApitAlism AnD thE rAcE for  Economic growth 666  •  A sustAinABlE  EnvironmEnt 666

Environmental Problems and Industrialization 666 toxic wAstEs 666  •  fossil fuEls AnD climAtE  chAngE 667  •  thE EnErgy shortAgE  AnD intErnAl comBustion EnginEs 669 •  thE rAin forEsts 669

The Environmental Movement 669 Environmental Sociology 672 Technology and the Environment: The Goal

of Harmony 673 summary and review 674 thinking critically about chapter 22 675

Epilogue: Why Major in Sociology? 676 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Name Index N-1 Subject Index S-1 Credits CR-1

A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 15 11/19/15 4:31 PM

 

 

Special Features

Down-to-Earth Sociology An Updated Version of the Old Elephant Story 7 Enjoying a Sociology Quiz—Testing Your Common Sense 8 Testing Your Common Sense—Answers to the Sociology

Quiz 10 Harriet Martineau and U.S. Customs: Listening to an Early

Feminist 18 W. E. B. Du Bois: The Souls of Black Folk 19 Careers in Sociology: What Applied Sociologists Do 22 Heredity or Environment? The Case of Jack and Oskar,

Identical Twins 66 Gossip and Ridicule to Enforce Adolescent Norms 87 Boot Camp as a Total Institution 89 College Football as Social Structure 100 Beauty May Be Only Skin Deep, But Its Effects Go On

Forever: Stereotypes in Everyday Life 112 Loading the Dice: How Not to Do Research 135 Gang Leader for a Day: Adventures of a Rogue Sociologist 138 The McDonaldization of Society 182 Shaming: Making a Comeback? 205 Running Naked with Pumpkins on Their Heads: Deviance

or Freedom of Self-Expression? 209 Islands in the Street: Urban Gangs in the United States 212 Sexting: Getting on the Phone Isn’t What It Used to Be 216 The Killer Next Door: Serial Murderers in Our Midst 221 Inequality? What Inequality? 246 How the Super-Rich Live 267 The Big Win: Life after the Lottery 271 “The American Dream”: Social Mobility Today 281 What Do You Know about Poverty? A Reality Check 285 Poverty: A Personal Journey 290 Cold-Hearted Surgeons and Their Women Victims 312 Affirmative Action for Men? 315 Applying Sociology: How to Get a Higher Salary 319 Can a Plane Ride Change Your Race? 330 Living in the Dorm: Contact Theory 335 The Racist Mind 337 The Man in the Zoo 342 Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack: Exploring Cultural

Privilege 349 The New Centenarians 382 Feisty to the End: Gender Roles among the Elderly 384 What Do You Think about the Red Sock? Sex in Nursing

Homes 385 Women in Business: Maneuvering the Male Culture 420 The Revolving Door of Power 445 The Rape of Nanking: A Report on Dehumanization 450

Who Are the Suicide Terrorists? Testing Your Stereotypes 452 Child Soldiers 453 Health Benefits of Marriage: Living Longer 471 “What Are Your Chances of Getting Divorced?” 485 Community Colleges: Facing Old and New Challenges 497 Home Schooling: The Search for Quality and Values 504 How I Became a Fairy: Education and the Perpetuation

of Social Inequality 506 You Want to Get Through College? Let’s Apply Sociology

512 Religion and Health: What We Know and Don’t Know 524 Terrorism and Access to the Mind of God 527 José’s Old Kidney: The International Black Market in Human

Body Parts 561 Having Babies Is Men’s Work 563 BioFoods: What’s in Your Future? Threats to Scientific

Research 594 Reclaiming Harlem: A Twist in the Invasion–Succession

Cycle 611 Rumors and Riots: An Eyewitness Account of the Tulsa

Riot 629 Dancing, Sex, and Monkey Men 633 “Tricks of the Trade”—Deception and Persuasion in

Propaganda 640

Cultural Diversity in the United States U n a n t i c i p a t e d P u b l i c S o c i o l o g y : S t u d y i n g J o b

Discrimination 23 Miami—Continuing Controversy over Language 45 Race and Language: Searching for Self-Labels 47 Immigrants and Their Children: Caught between Two

Worlds 86 The Amish: Gemeinschaft Community in a Gesellschaft

Society 108 Do Your Social Networks Perpetuate Social Inequality?

163 Social Class and the Upward Social Mobility of African

Americans 282 Tiger Woods: Mapping the Changing Ethnic Terrain 329 The Illegal Travel Guide 350 Glimpsing the Future: The Shifting U.S. Racial–Ethnic

Mix 361 The Politics of Immigrants: Power, Ethnicity, and Social

Class 440

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