week 1 case assignment

CHAPTER 3

Values, Attitudes, Emotions,
and Culture:
The Manager as a Person
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Learning Objectives
Describe the various personality traits that affect how managers think, feel, and behave.
Explain what values and attitudes are, and describe their impact on managerial action.
Appreciate how moods and emotions influence all members of an organization.
Describe the nature of emotional intelligence and its role in management.
Define organizational culture, and explain how managers both create and are influenced by organizational culture.

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Personality Traits
Personality traits
Particular tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways that can be used to describe the personality of every individual

Managers’ personalities influence their behavior and their approach to managing people and resources.

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All people have certain enduring characteristics that influence how they think, feel and behave – both on and off the job.

These characteristics are “personality traits.”

It is important to understand the personalities of managers to better understand their approach to managing people and resources.

Two managers may be successful in managing the effectiveness and efficiency of their departments, but what makes one manager critical of their employees and difficult to work with while another frequently praises their employees and is likable?

Their personalities account for their different approaches; research suggests that:

The way people react to different conditions depends, in part, on their personalities.

Personality traits may even predict job performance in certain situations. For example, extraversion better predicted performance in jobs requiring social skills, while agreeableness was less positively related to job performance in competitive environments.
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Big Five Personality Traits (1 of 8)
Managers’ personalities can be described by determining which point on each of the following dimensions best characterizes the manager in question.

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Big Five Personality Traits
We can think of an individual’s personality as being composed of five general traits or characteristics: extraversion, negative affectivity, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.

Each of them can be viewed as a continuum along which every individual or, more specifically, every manager falls.

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Big Five Personality Traits (2 of 8)
Personality traits that enhance managerial effectiveness in one situation may actually impair it in another.

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No single trait is right or wrong for being an effective manager.

Effectiveness is determined by a complex interaction between the characteristics of managers and the nature of the job and organization in which they are working.

Big Five Personality Traits (3 of 8)
Extraversion
Tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and feel good about oneself and the rest of the world
Someone who sees the good even in the face of troubles, who shows friendliness and openness to all

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Extraversion is the tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and feel good about oneself and the rest of the world.

Managers who are high on extraversion (extraverts) tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing, and friendly.

Managers who are low on extraversion (introverts) tend to be less inclined toward social interactions and to have a less positive outlook.

Being high on extraversion may be an asset for managers whose jobs entail especially high levels of social interaction.

Managers who are low on extraversion may nevertheless be highly effective and efficient, especially when their jobs do not require much social interaction.

Figure 3.2 is an example of a scale developed to measure a person’s level of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience.

Big Five Personality Traits (4 of 8)
Negative affectivity
Tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, feel distressed, and be critical of oneself and others
Someone who is pessimistic, ready to fail

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Negative Affectivity is the tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, feel distressed, and be critical of oneself and others.

Managers high in negative affectivity may often feel angry and dissatisfied and complain about their own and others’ lack of progress.

Managers who are low in negative affectivity do not tend to experience many negative emotions and moods and are less pessimistic and critical of themselves and others.

Managers who are low on negative affectivity do not tend to experience many negative emotions and moods and are less pessimistic and critical of themselves and others.

Figure 3.2 is an example of a scale developed to measure a person’s level of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience.

Big Five Personality Traits (5 of 8)
Agreeableness
Tendency to get along well with others
Conscientiousness
Tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering

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Agreeableness is the tendency to get along well with others.

Managers who are high on the agreeableness continuum are likable, tend to be affectionate, and care about other people.

Managers who are low on agreeableness may be somewhat distrustful of others, unsympathetic, uncooperative and even at times antagonistic.

Conscientiousness is the tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering.

Managers who are high on the conscientiousness continuum are organized and self-disciplined;

Those who are low on this trait might sometimes appear to lack direction and self-discipline.

Figure 3.2 is an example of a scale developed to measure a person’s level of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience.

Big Five Personality Traits (6 of 8)
Openness to experience
Tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring, and take risks
Innovative persons, entrepreneurs, Geisha Williams

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Openness to experience is the tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring, and take risks.

Managers who are high on this trait continuum may be especially likely to take risks and be innovative in their planning and decision-making. Entrepreneurs who start their own businesses are, in all likelihood, high on openness to experience.

Managers who are low on openness to experience may be less prone to take risks and more conservative in their planning and decision-making.

Figure 3.2 is an example of a scale developed to measure a person’s level of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience.

Big Five Personality Traits (7 of 8)
Figure 3.2 Measures of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience

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Ask students for examples of business leaders who might fall into each of the categories.

Have students write down what they think their personality traits are, then administer Figure 3.2 assessment and ask them to compare.

Also, consider that how we view ourselves may be different than the way others view us. Suggest that students gather insights from friends, family and co-workers.

Successful managers occupy a variety of positions on the Big Five personality trait continuum.

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Big Five Personality Traits (8 of 8)
Will I be a successful manager?
Successful managers occupy a variety of positions on the Big Five personality trait continuum.
To work well together inside and outside of the organization, members of the organization must understand and appreciate the fundamental ways in which people differ one another.

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One highly effective manager may be high on extraversion (tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing, and friendly) and negative affectivity (often feel angry and dissatisfied and complain about their own and others’ lack of progress); another equally effective manager may be low on both traits; another may be somewhere in between.

Members of an organization must understand these differences because they can shed light on how managers behave and on their approach to planning, leading, organizing, or controlling.

If subordinates realize that their manager is low on extraversion, they will not feel slighted when the manager seems to be aloof. They will realize that by nature he/she is simply not outgoing.

Managers themselves also need to be aware of their own personality traits and the traits of others, including their subordinates and fellow managers.

A manager who has a tendency to be highly critical of others might try to tone down his/her negative approach. A manager who realizes that his/her subordinate tends to be so negative because of his/her personality may realize that things are probably not as bad as the subordinate says.

Understanding and appreciating the different personality traits will enable all members within (internal) the organization to work well together as well as with people outside (external) the organization, such as customers and suppliers.

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Other Personality Traits That Affect
Managerial Behavior (1 of 6)
Internal locus of control
Belief that you are responsible for your own fate
Own actions and behaviors are major and decisive determinants of job outcomes
Essential trait for managers
The buck stops here!

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Other Personality Traits that Affect Managerial Behavior
 
Other personality traits that are particularly important for understanding managerial effectiveness:
locus of control
self-esteem
need for achievement, affiliation, and power

People differ in their views about how much control they have over what happens to them and those and around them. The locus of control trait captures these beliefs.

People with an internal locus of control believe they themselves are responsible for their own fate; they see their own actions and behaviors as being major and decisive determinants of important outcomes.

Managers need an internal locus of control because they ARE responsible for what happens in organizations. They are responsible for ensuring that organizations and their members behave in an ethical fashion.

Managers need to know and feel they can make a difference.

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Other Personality Traits That Affect
Managerial Behavior (2 of 6)
External locus of control
The tendency to locate responsibility for one’s fate in outside forces and to believe one’s own behavior has little impact on outcomes
Wasn’t my fault!

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People with an external locus of control believe that outside forces are responsible for what happens to them and those around them.

They do not think that their own actions make much of a difference.

They tend not to intervene to try to change a situation or solve a problem, leaving it to someone else.

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Other Personality Traits That Affect
Managerial Behavior (3 of 6)
Self-esteem
The degree to which people feel good about themselves and their capabilities
High self-esteem causes a person to feel competent, deserving and capable.
Desirable for managers
People with low self-esteem have poor opinions of themselves and are unsure about their capabilities.

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People with high self-esteem believe they are competent and capable of handling most situations.

People with low self-esteem question their ability to succeed at different endeavors.

Research suggests that people tend to choose activities and goals consistent with their levels of self-esteem.

High self-esteem is desirable for managers because it:
facilitates their setting and keeping high standards for themselves.
pushes them ahead on difficult projects.
gives them confidence they need to make and carry out important decisions.
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Other Personality Traits That Affect
Managerial Behavior (4 of 6)
Need for achievement
The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence
High needs are assets for first-line and middle managers.
Need for affiliation
The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people get along
High levels are undesirable in managers.

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Psychologist David McClelland has extensively researched the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power.

The need for achievement is the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.
People with high need for achievement set clear goals for themselves and like to receive performance feedback.

The need for power is the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others.

 

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Other Personality Traits That Affect
Managerial Behavior (5 of 6)
Need for power
The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
High needs are important for upper-level managers.

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High levels of need for affiliation might lead managers to try too hard to be liked by others (including subordinates) rather than doing all they can to ensure that performance is as high as it can and should be.

Note: Although most research on these needs has been done in the United States, some studies suggest that these findings may also apply to people in other countries, such as India and New Zealand. (text footnote 26)

Desirable personality traits for managers (below) suggest that managers need to be take-charge people who not only believe their own actions are decisive in determining their own and their organization’s fates but also believe in their own capabilities.
Internal locus of control
High self esteem
High needs for achievement and power
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Additional Personality Assessments (6 of 6)
Effective tools in helping managers assess employees, thereby contributing to an organization’s success
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Measures preferences for introversion versus extroversion, sensation versus intuition, thinking versus feeling, and judging versus perceiving.
DiSC Inventory Profile
Behavior style is described in terms of dominance, influence, steadiness, and conscientiousness (DiSC)

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These assessments help managers identify positive and negative behaviors, employees’ strengths and weaknesses, and how people perceive and process information—all important factors that lead to an organization’s success.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Most widely used–estimated 3.5 million assessments administered annually
Based on theories of psychologist Carl Jung
Various combinations of the four preferences (introversion vs. extroversion, sensation vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling, judging vs. perceiving) result in 16 unique personality types – helpful to individuals seeking to understand how they make decisions, manage their time, problem solve, make decisions, and deal with stress
Recent research—the 4 personality dimensions linked to various job-related components, including job satisfaction, job performance, motivation, and promotion

DiSC Inventory Profile (Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientiousness)
Based on work of William Marston, psychologist who attempted to characterize normal behavior patterns

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Values, Attitudes, and
Moods and Emotions
Values
Describe what managers try to achieve through work and how they think they should behave
Attitudes
Capture managers’ thoughts and feelings about their specific jobs and organizations
Moods and Emotions
Encompass how managers actually feel when they are managing

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VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND MOODS AND EMOTIONS
 
Values, attitudes, and moods and emotions capture how managers experience their jobs as individuals.

Values describe what managers are trying to achieve through work and how they think they should behave.

Attitudes capture their thoughts and feelings about their specific jobs and organizations.

Moods and emotions encompass how managers actually feel when they are managing.

Although these three aspects of managers’ work experience are highly personal, they also have important implications for understanding:
how managers behave.
how they treat and respond to others.
how they help contribute to organizational effectiveness through planning, leading, organizing, and controlling.

Values: Terminal and Instrumental
(1 of 3)
Terminal values
A lifelong goal or objective that an individual seeks to achieve
Examples: Financial security, professional excellence, sense of accomplishment, self-respect
Lead to the formation of norms
Instrumental values
A mode of conduct that an individual seeks to follow
Examples: Honesty, integrity, fairness, hard-working

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The two kinds of personal values are terminal and instrumental.

Terminal Values
A personal conviction about life-long goals
A sense of accomplishment, equality, and self-respect
Instrumental Values
A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving
Being hard-working, broadminded, capable

Values: Terminal and Instrumental
(2 of 3)
Norms
Important unwritten, informal codes of conduct guiding people how to act in particular situations
Examples: Shake hands when you meet someone, make direct eye contact when speaking to someone, dress appropriately for the environment you are in
Changes with environment, situation, and culture

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Examples: Shake hands when you meet someone. Make direct eye contact with the person you are speaking with. Unless the movie theater is crowded, do not sit right next to someone.

Social norms can change over time.
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Values: Terminal and Instrumental
(3 of 3)
Value system
The terminal and instrumental values that are guiding principles in an individual’s life
What a person is striving to achieve in life and how they want to behave

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The terminal and instrumental values that are guiding principles in an individual’s life
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Attitudes (1 of 6)
Managers’ attitudes about their jobs and organizations
Affects how they approach their jobs
Two of the most important attitudes:
Job satisfaction
Organizational commitment

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Attitudes (2 of 6)
Job satisfaction
A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs
Managers high on job satisfaction believe their jobs have many desirable features or characteristics.
Upper managers, in general, tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than entry-level employees.

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An attitude is a collection of feelings and beliefs.

Like everyone else, managers have attitudes about their jobs and organizations, and these attitudes affect how they approach their jobs.

Two of the most important attitudes in this context are job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs.

Managers who have high levels of job satisfaction generally like their jobs, feel they are fairly treated, and believe their jobs have many desirable features or characteristics.

Figure 3.5 shows sample items from two scales that managers can use to measure job satisfaction.

Managers with high satisfaction are more likely perform these “above and beyond the call of duty” behaviors.

Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit.

Attitudes (3 of 6)
Job satisfaction
Two reasons it is important for managers to satisfied with their jobs
Perform Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)
Less likely to quit, reducing management turnover

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An attitude is a collection of feelings and beliefs.

Like everyone else, managers have attitudes about their jobs and organizations, and these attitudes affect how they approach their jobs.

Two of the most important attitudes in this context are job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs.

Managers who have high levels of job satisfaction generally like their jobs, feel they are fairly treated, and believe their jobs have many desirable features or characteristics.

Figure 3.5 shows sample items from two scales that managers can use to measure job satisfaction.

Managers with high satisfaction are more likely perform these “above and beyond the call of duty” behaviors.

Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit

Attitudes (4 of 6)
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
Behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive advantage
Above and beyond the call of duty

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In general, it is desirable for managers to be satisfied with their jobs, for at least two reasons:

Satisfied managers may be more likely to go the extra mile for their organization or perform organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)—behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive advantage.

A second reason why it is desirable for managers to be satisfied with their jobs is that satisfied managers may be less likely to quit.

A manager who is highly satisfied may never even think about looking for another position; a dissatisfied manager may always be on the lookout for new opportunities.

Attitudes (5 of 6)
Figure 3.3 Two Measures of Job Satisfaction
Source: D. J. Weiss et al., Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Copyright by the Vocational Psychology Research, University of Minnesota; copyright © 1975 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted by permission of R.B. Dunham and J.B. Brett.

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Measure of Negative Affectivity

Figure 3.3 is an example of a scale developed to measure a person’s level of negative affectivity.
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Attitudes (6 of 6)
Organizational commitment
The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole
Managers who are committed:
Believe in what their organizations are doing

Proud of what their organizations stand for

More likely to go above and beyond the call of duty

Less likely to quit

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Attitudes:
Believe in what their organizations are doing
Proud of what their organizations stand for
More likely to go above and beyond the call of duty
Less likely to quit

Moods and Emotions (1 of 4)
Mood
A mood is a feeling or state of mind.
Positive moods provide excitement, elation, and enthusiasm.
Negative moods lead to fear, distress, and nervousness.

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Moods and Emotions
 
A mood is a feeling or state of mind.

When people are in a positive mood, they feel excited, enthusiastic, active, or elated.

When people are in a negative mood, they feel distressed, fearful, scornful, hostile, jittery, or nervous.

People who are high on extraversion are especially likely to experience positive moods; people who are high on negative affectivity are especially likely to experience negative moods.

People’s situations or circumstances also determine their moods; however, receiving a raise is likely to put most people in a good mood regardless of their personality traits.

People who are high on negative affectivity are not always in a bad mood, and people who are low on extraversion still experience positive moods.

Research suggests that under certain conditions, creativity might be enhanced by positive moods, whereas under other conditions negative moods might push people to work harder to come up with truly creative ideas.

Other research suggests that moods and emotions may play an important role in ethical decision making.

Some studies suggest that critical thinking and devil’s advocacy may be promoted by a negative mood, and sometimes especially accurate judgments may be made by managers in negative moods.

Moods and Emotions (2 of 4)
Emotions
Intense, relatively short-lived feelings
Often directly linked to whatever caused the emotion, and are more short-lived
Once whatever has triggered the emotion has been dealt with, the feelings may linger in the form of a less intense mood.

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Emotions are more intense feelings than moods, are often directly linked to whatever caused the emotion, and are more short-lived.

Research has found that moods and emotions affect the behavior of managers and all members of an organization.
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Moods and Emotions (3 of 4)
Research has found that moods and emotions affect the behavior of managers and all members of an organization.
Subordinates of managers who experience positive moods at work may perform at somewhat higher levels and be less likely to resign and leave the organization.
Under certain conditions creativity might be
enhanced by positive moods.

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Moods and Emotions (4 of 4)
Figure 3.4
A Measure of Positive and Negative Mood at Work
Source: A.P. Brief, M.J. Burke, J.M. George, B. Robinson, and J. Webster, “Should Negative Affectivity Remain an Unmeasured Variable in the Study of Job Stress?” Journal of Applied Psychology 72 (1988), 193-98; M.J. Burke, A.P. Brief, J.M. George, L. Roberson, and J. Webster, “Measuring Affect at work: Confirmatory Analyses of Competing Mood Structures with Conceptual Linkage in Cortical Regulatory Systems,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (1989), 1091-102.

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An example of a scale that can measure the extent to which a person experiences positive and negative moods at work
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Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence
It is the ability to understand and manage one’s own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people.
It helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison.
Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence are more:
likely to understand how they are feeling.
able to effectively manage their feelings so that they do not get in the way of effective decision making.
Managing and reading emotions is important globally; it varies by culture.

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Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence (EI) are more likely to understand how they are feeling and why, and they are more able to effectively manage their feelings.

EI can help managers perform their important roles such as their interpersonal roles (figurehead, leader, and liaison).

Moreover, EI has the potential to contribute to effective leadership in multiple ways and can help managers make lasting contributions to society.

An example of a scale that measures EI is provided in Figure 3.5.

Organizational Culture (1 of 3)
Organizational culture
Organizational culture is the shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how individuals, groups, and teams interact with one another and cooperate to achieve organizational goals
Trader Joe’s creates a culture of responsibility and commitment to the customer.

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When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines, a strong organizational culture exists.

When members are not committed to a shared set of values, beliefs, and routines, organizational culture is weak.

Organizational Culture (2 of 3)
When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines a strong organizational culture exists
When members are not committed to a shared set of values, beliefs, and routines, organizational culture is weak

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When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines, and use them to achieve their goals, a strong organizational culture exists.

The stronger the culture of an organization, the more one can think about it as being the “personality” of an organization, because it influences the way its members behave.

Examples: Apple, Google

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Example: Organizational Culture
At IDEO Product Development in Silicon Valley, employees are encouraged to adopt a playful …

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